Services provided by communication agencies: Post and Telegraph services, Telephone services, internet, courier services.

Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 7






Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to



  • mention services provided by communication agencies:
  • say services provided by Post and Telegraph services,
  • describe the use of telephone services for business growth,
  • tell us more about the importance of internet, courier services.




Instructional Materials 

  • Textbook
  • Pictures
  • Online resources
  • Flashcards


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization





1. Postal and Telegraphic services

2. Telephone services and Internet Services

3. Courier Services


The post office is the communication agency responsible for providing postal and telegraphic services. The Government body in charge of activities of the post offices is Nigerian Postal System (NIPOST). The services provided by NIPOST include the posting of the following types of letters

Ordinary Letter:

Letters are means through which an individual or business organization makes contact with other individuals or business organizations through written communication. Letters are the most common means of communication. It includes such features as:

– The name and address of the person to whom the letter is to be sent, known as the Addressee

– The correct amount of postage stamps

– Sender’s name and address (written at the back of the envelope)

Express Letters:

These are more quickly dispatched letters than ordinary letters. Because of the urgency involved, the charges are higher than those of an ordinary letter. When an express letter is delivered, the recipient signs a document as evidence of delivery. An example is EMS Speedpost provided by NIPOST. EMS stands for Express Mail Service

Registered Letters:

Valuable documents, postal orders and money orders are sent through this means. It is the means used when it becomes very important that a mail must get to the right hand at its destination. A registered letter is affixed with a registration label which bears a serial number.


NIPOST offers parcel delivery services. The parcels must be properly tied to ensure that the contents are intact for delivery. The cost of postage varies according to the mode of posting and weight.

Surface Mail:

Surface mails are delivered by sea. Charges for surface mail vary from time to time but the minimum rate is 150 percent of the standard in land postal rate

Airmail Service:

Through this means NIPOST sends letters and parcels by air to their destinations. Airmail is identified with a blue Airmail label to the left-hand corner envelope or the term ‘Airmal’ written boldly on the same left-hand corner. Airmail services attract a higher postage rate than the surface mail services.

Telegrams and Cables:

Here NIPOST transmits messages on behalf of the sender to a post office nearest to the receiver of the message. The receiving Post office decodes the message and forwards it in a special envelope to the addressee. It is more expensive and its cost depends on the number of words contained in the message.

However, the availability of GSM telecommunication has rendered this medium obsolete.

Post office Box:

This is popularly called P.O. Box. It is a facility provided by NIPOST to individuals or business organizations who wish to receive their letters and parcels before the normal delivery period. Two keys, original and duplicate are given to the owner of the box to enable him access his mails at times convenient to him.

Private Mail Bag:

This is popularly called P.M.B. It is a facility similar to the P.O. Box, with the difference that their owners are given just a key while NIPOST retains the duplicate. NIPOST opens the bag, puts in letters and re-locks the bag, which can only be opened by the owner of the box. Private Mail Bag attracts higher fees than Post Office Box.

Redirection of mails:

NIPOST also helps to redirect a letter to a new location if the addressee has changed his location. NIPOST does this without additional charge.

Franking Machine:

NIPOST grants license to individuals and business organizations before can be allowed to use Franking machine. It is best suited where large number of letters is to stamped. Franking machine imprints stamp or frank one each envelope. Messages franked are not posted but are rather bundled together and handed in at a specified counter at the post office.

Postal Order:

Postal orders can be purchased at post offices. The buyer orders the Post Office to pay a named person the stated sum of money at another Post office. The buyer fills a form containing the necessary details. The Post office collects a commission for this service called Poundage

However, poster orders are not legal tenders i.e. they cannot be used in place of currency. It is valid for six months.

Money Order:

A Money order can be also used to send money to any part of the country. To enjoy this service, you need to pay some money to the post office, fill the form and state some vital information which the recipient will be asked to supply before collecting the money at the other post office

Money orders are safer than postal orders, but they are more expensive because the commission on them is higher. Money order is usually valid for six months.

Free Post:

With a license from NIPOST, a customer can dispatch letters using pre-paid envelopes. The customer does not need to affix stamps on the envelope.



Telephones services are offered by the Nigerian Telecommunication (NITEL). NITEL was established in 1985. Some of the services provided by NITEL are examined below:

Local Calls

These are calls which are made within a city or town. For example, calls within Lagos State are regarded to as local calls

Trunk Calls

These are calls made from one town or city to another. For example calls from Lagos to Kaduna, Yobe, Abeokuta, Ibadan are called Trunk calls. To make trunk calls, a subscriber must first dial the code number of the city before adding real phone numbers. They attract higher charges that local calls.

International Calls

NITEL makes it possible for subscribers to make calls to other countries of the world. International calls attract higher charges and could be done directly or by asking the operator the NITEL switchboard to assist in making the call.

Conference calls

The procedure for conference calls is as follows:

  1. Arrange with the operator to get the conferees together on each person’s telephone.
  2. The operator informs the conferees that someone (eg. Mr. B) has made a conference call to discuss some issues.
  3. The operator connects all the lines
  4. The conferees can discuss and reach an agreement without leaving their various locations.

Telephone Directory

This is a book where subscribers can get telephone numbers either of business organizations or individuals. This book is published by NITEL.

Telegram Service

NITEL makes it possible for Nigerians to dispatch telegrams within the country. The sender fills a pre-printed telegram form, after which the clerk determines the amount to be paid. The message is then sent to its destination through a fast electronic device called the telegraph. Any messages sent will be received within forty-eight hours.

Telex Service

A telex system is a fast electronic means of written communication within and outside the country. Messages are sent or received through a telex machine which can also print. Many businessmen prefer telex messages to telegrams because it is faster and more confidential.

Fax Service

Just like telex, fax is a written communication system, except that it is faster than telex. It is operated between two people who have access to fax machine. When the sender feeds the written message into the fax machine, it would automatically be transmitted to the expected receiver. Fax services are commonly used by newspaper houses, banks, insurance companies, etc.


The Internet is a system which links together computers all over the word and makes it possible for people to communicate with each other irrespective of their location in the world. Services provided by Internet are as follows:

  1. Electronic mail

This is popularly known as e-mail. An e-mail is a communication means by which people send messages to other people in any part of the world. It is faster and more effective than telex or fax messages.

  1. World wide web (

This gives room to vast flow of information across the world. Such world widewebs include Yahoo, Google, Wikipedia, etc.

  1. Electronic banking (e-banking)

This provides opportunity for e-payment, electronic transfer of money, etc.

  1. Chat room facilities
  2. Electronic commerce (e-commerce)

This makes it possible for companies to advertise their goods and services on the internet. Customers also make purchases online and have the goods delivered to them.

  1. Online learning

The Global System of Mobile Communication

The GSM is the latest and fastest means of communication. It is a wireless system of telephoning, by which you can talk to anybody in any part of the world. It operates through mobile phones. Messages can also be sent through the phones. The major GSM service operators in Nigeria are MTN, Globacom, Airtel, Starcomm, etc.

Courier Services

These are means by which private organizations collect and deliver mails and cargoes quickly and safely. Courier companies must be registered by NIPOST before they can operate. Examples of courier firms in Nigeria are DHL, FEDEX, UPS, TNT, EMS (operated by NIPOST)






Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.





Objective Test:

  1. Which of these is not a postal service handled by the NIPOST?
    1. E-mail service
    2. Airmail service
    3. Posting ordinary letters
    4. Parcel post
    5. Provision of P.M.B.
  2. The basic function of courier companies to Nigeria is
    1. Carrying and delivering documents to their destinations through the internet
    2. Sending documents to their destinations through fax machines
    3. Using the GSM services to deliver documents to their destinations
    4. Carrying and delivering documents to their destinations speedily and safely.
    5. Carrying and delivering documents to their destinations through NIPOST.
  3. All the following are the services provided by the internet except:
    1. Email
    2. Telex service
    3. E-banking services
    4. Chat-room
    5. E-commerce service
  4. Telephone users are known as _________
    1. Consumers
    2. Purchasers
    3. Users
    4. Subscribers
    5. Suppliers
  5. Which of the following is not a telephone call?
    1. Trunk
    2. Local
    3. International
    4. multinational
  6. What is the name of the first courier company to Nigeria?

    a) DHL b) FedEx c) UPS d) Postal Service


  7. What are the three largest cities in Nigeria?

    a) Abuja, Lagos, Port Harcourt b) Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna c) Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt d) Sokoto, Kano, Maiduguri


  8. What is the name of the current president of Nigeria?

    a) Muhammadu Buhari b) Goodluck Jonathan c) Olusegun Obasanjo d) Sani Abacha

Essay Test:

1. Describe the fasted method by which a business can send the following to his business partner

  1. A textbook from Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited to a student in Deeper Life High School, Kaduna
  2. That the business partner should expect him in Abuja within 48 hours
  3. A mini-laptop
  4. That his customer should let him know the quantity of goods he (the customer) requires and when to send them.
  5. A court ruling in Lagos from a lawyer to his client in Owerri

2.What is the difference between P.O. Box and P.M.B? What are their uses?

3. Distinguish between a local call and a trunk call. Outline the procedure for making a conference call.

4. What is the NIPOST?

5. What postal services does the NIPOST handle?

6. What is the difference between registered and unregistered mail?

7. Can I use the NIPOST to send money abroad?

8. How do I track a package sent through the NIPOST?

9. What is GSM?

10. What are the benefits of using GSM?

11. How does GSM work?

12. What are some of the features of GSM?

13. What is the future of GSM?


The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections



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