# Category: Statistical Methods in Education (PDE 710)

## Identify four (4) problem areas that could be investigated in education

Greetings, class. Today, we will delve into the realm of education and explore potential problem areas that warrant investigation. These problem areas often have a substantial impact on the quality of education. Let’s break down the key issues and provide examples for each: A. Inadequate Funding: Insufficient financial support can hinder educational institutions in various

## 1. (a) What is educational statistics? (b) Explain any five (5) purposes for its use in Nigeria’s educational system.

1. (a) What is educational statistics? (b) Explain any five (5) purposes for its use in Nigeria’s educational system.   (a) Educational Statistics: Educational statistics refers to the application of statistical methods and techniques to gather, analyze, interpret, and present data related to various aspects of education. It involves the systematic collection and analysis of

## Distinguish clearly between type I and type II errors.

Distinguish clearly between type I and type II errors.   Tabular comparison of Type I and Type II errors: Error Type Type I Error Type II Error Definition Incorrectly rejecting a true Failing to reject a false null hypothesis (False Positive) null hypothesis (False Negative) Symbol α β Occurrence Occurs when there is no effect,

## Explain the concept of significance level.

Explain the concept of significance level. Scientific conclusions are statements with high probability of being correct and not statements of absolute truth. Before we carry out the experiment, we must determine how high the probability will be in order to accept or reject a null hypothesis. We need to carry out a test of significance

## Using a scatter diagram differentiate between negative, positive and zero correlation.

Using a scatter diagram differentiate between negative, positive and zero correlation. A negative correlation refers to a relationship where the variables move in opposite direction i.c. an increase in one variable is accompanied by a decrease in another variable. For example, an increase in visits to the pub is accompanied by a decrease in exam

## Write briefly on the following terms A one tailed test, Systematic sampling, A two tailed test, Cluster sampling, Accidental / Haphazard Sampling

A one-tailed test: This type of statistical test involves making a directional prediction about the outcome. For instance, it could be predicted that students who engaged in micro-teaching will achieve higher scores in practical teaching compared to those who did not participate.   Systematic sampling: In this method of sampling, a sample is chosen by

## 2. (a) Explain educational statistics (b) Is statistics really needed in education? Discuss

(a) Educational statistics is the application of statistical methods to address issues related to various aspects of education. It involves organizing, summarizing, presenting, and interpreting data obtained from educational assessments. By employing educational statistics, we can measure the relationships between different educational variables, draw conclusions, and make predictions that aid in achieving specific educational objectives.

## Average Mean or Arithmetic Mean

(a) Define A. Mean B. Median C. Mode D. Standard deviation. (b) Find the mean and mode of the following set of data A. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18 B. 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16 . 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5,7,7,7,9

## National Teachers’ Institute Kaduna (Post Graduate Diploma in Education) PDE 710 Statistical Methods in Education 2016

1. (a) Describe sampling (b) Explain any four (4) of its significance 2. (a) Distinguish between Type I and Type II error (b) Define Kurtosis (c) With the aid of diagram, explain the following: i. Leptokurtic ii. Platykurtic iii. Mesokurtic   3. (a) What is population of a study? (b) Explain the following sampling techniques

## What is the probability of obtaining a multiple of 2 from he cast of a die 🎲

When rolling a fair six-sided die 🎲, there are three outcomes that result in a multiple of 2: 2, 4, and 6. Since there are a total of six equally likely outcomes (numbers 1 through 6) when rolling a standard die, the probability of obtaining a multiple of 2 is the ratio of favorable outcomes