Expressing Obligation and Necessity
JSS 3 / BASIC 9
Previous lesson: Pupils have previous knowledge of
Order of Adjectives
that was taught in their previous lesson
Speech Work – Consonant Contrast /p – f/; /Ʒ – ʃ/; /t – q/; /l – r/; /s – q/; /ʃ – ʧ/ (NOSEC, 68);
Vocabulary Development: Prefixes and Suffixes (NOSEC, pages 61 – 62, 72, 81, 96);
Reading Comprehension: It’s so Unfair’(NOSEC, pages 75 – 77);
English Structure: Expressing Obligation and Necessity (using: must, have to, need, ought to etc e.g. I ought to have done my assignment. I need to go now (NOSEC, pages 59 – 60);
Composition: Debate (Oral)“Corruption is worse than armed robbery”,
Literature: Revising Drama (use recommended text).
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching:
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Speech Work – Consonant Contrast /p – f/; /Ʒ – ʃ/; /t – q/; /l – r/; /s – q/; /ʃ – ʧ/
/p/ / f//Ӡ/ /∫/ /ʈ/ /Ө/
Pen fence measure mission ten things
Pay fail pleasure passion two thought
price fry television tension tree three
prince fringe vision mission try thrive
/∫//ʧ/ /s//q//Ɩ/ /r/
Shoe Chew sink think load road
Shake check sank thank lead read
Shout chapter sat bath lip rib
Sharp cheap pass path left rest
Washing watching sin thin pole robe
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: World Building Using prefixes and suffixes
World Building Using prefixes.
In the last lesson ,we looked at how to use prefixes to make your world building more interesting and believable. In this post we will look at how to use suffixes for the same purpose.
Suffixes are a great way to add detail to your world building. They can be used to create new words or to change the meaning of existing words. For example, the suffix “-er” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “one who does something.” For example, if you have a character who is a farmer, you can use the suffix “-er” to create the word “farmer.”
The suffix “-ness” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “the state or quality of being something.” For example, if you have a character who is happy, you can use the suffix “-ness” to create the word “happiness.”
The suffix “-ment” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “the act of doing something.” For example, if you have a character who is building a house, you can use the suffix “-ment” to create the word “development.”
The suffix “-ion” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “the process of doing something.” For example, if you have a character who is cooking a meal, you can use the suffix “-ion” to create the word “preparation.”
The suffix “-tion” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “the result of doing something.” For example, if you have a character who has completed a task, you can use the suffix “-tion” to create the word “completion.”
The suffix “-ance” can be added to a word to create a new word that means “the state or quality of being something.” For example, if you have a character who is important, you can use the suffix “-ance” to create the word “importance.”
Prefixes are affixes or part of words that are added to the front part of words to form another words. Eg.-un, non, dis, mal, mis, rel, pre, ex, sub, etc
suitable-unsuitable, appear-disappear, adjust-maladjust-, sense-nonsense, represent-misrepresent, season-pre-season, etc.
un- many adjectives formed with un- have special (usually unfavorable) meanings, for example, unfavorable and unprofessional etc.
Pre- can mean any of the following: 1. before, earlier e.g. preschool, predate etc. 2. In advance, preparatory e.g. presale, pre-release etc 3. In front of e.g. premolar
Ex-can mean any of the following: 1. out, outside, away e.g. exclave, explants, 2. Not, without 3. Former e.g. ex-convict, ex-wife, ex-service, ex-serviceman etc.
sub- summarily put in Latin word means under
–un, non, dis, mal, mis, rel, pre, ex, sub etc. e.g. suitable – unsuitable, appear – disappear, adjust – maladjust, sense – nonsense, etc.)-
(Word Building Using Antonyms Opposite and using Prefixes e.g. inform-misinform).
Prefixes and suffixes are parts of words that are added to the beginning or end of other words. They can change the meaning of the word, or make it more specific. For example, adding the prefix un- to happy changes its meaning to “not happy.” Adding the suffix -ly to quick changes its meaning to “happening quickly.”
There are many common prefixes and suffixes in English, and new ones are created all the time. They are a great way to make new words from old words, and they can help you understand words you come across that you don’t know.
ASSIGNMENT. Use correct prefix to form antonyms with the words below.
Reading Comprehension: It’s so Unfair’(NOSEC, pages 75 – 77)
Extract: I think most of the boys in my class…I just can’t believe it! It’s so unfair.
Evaluation: Attempt questions 1-8 on page 77 of NOSEC book 3.
TOPIC: Expressing obligation and necessity using: must, have to, need, ought to, etc.
Expressing obligation and necessity:
Expressing obligation and necessity: have/has to, must
We use have to/has to or must to express obligation and necessity. For example:
I have to finish this report by 5 o’clock. (= I’m obliged to finish it)
We have to leave early tomorrow. (= We’re obliged to leave)
I must see the dentist tomorrow. (= I need to see the dentist)
You must be careful when you cross the road. (= You need to be careful)
Note that we use have/has to or must depending on the subject. We use have/has to with he, she, it and all plural subjects:
She has to go now.
They have to finish the job by Friday.
We use must with all other subjects:
I must go now.
You must finish the job by Friday.
Note that we can also use needn’t to say that something is not necessary:
You needn’t come tomorrow. (= You don’t need to come)
I needn’t see the dentist. (= I don’t need to see the dentist)
You needn’t be careful. (= You don’t need to be careful)
When we want to talk about past obligation or necessity, we use had to:
I had to finish the report by 5 o’clock.
They had to leave early.
We can also use must have + past participle to talk about past obligation or necessity:
She must have left already. (= She was obliged to leave)
They must have finished the job by now. (= They were obliged to finish it)
When we want to talk about future obligation or necessity, we use will have to:
I’ll have to finish the report by 5 o’clock.
They’ll have to leave early.
We can also use must + infinitive to talk about future obligation or necessity:
She must leave early. (= She is obliged to leave)
They must finish the job by Friday. (= They are obliged to finish it)
We can use have got to instead of have to/has to. This is common in informal English:
I’ve got to go now. (= I have to go)
You’ve got to be careful. (= You need to be careful)
NOSEC, pages 59 – 60);
An obligation is something that we are expected to do. Some obligations are stronger than others. Below is a note on each of the verbs used as obligations/necessity.
Should: Should generally mean ‘in my opinion it is a good idea to do something’. It is desirable and advisable. In the past, we ‘should have’. Examples:
A: That’s a bad cough! You should stop smoking.
B: I know! I should have stopped smoking a long time ago.
Ought to: This can be slightly stronger than should in meaning. It is often used to refer to rules and regulations. In questions, we use should. In informal English, we often use ‘to be supposed to’ to talk about rules. Example:
A: Should we invite Mary to the party?
B: We ought to. She invited us to hers!
C: Are we allowed to buy food at the gate?
D: Yes, but you’re not supposed to go to the market during school hours.
‘Had better: Stronger than should /ought to, it is recommended future action on a particular occasion’. It implies a warning, or a touch of urgency. Examples:
A: You look terrible! You’d better ask the teacher if you can be excused PE.
B: Perhaps, you’re right. I think I may have a temperature.
A: in that case, you had to see a doctor.
Am/is/are to: These forms can be used to issue (or report on) instructions as well as indicate arrangements.
A: All new students are to report to the Principal at two.
B: What did you say?
A: You are to report to the Principal at two.
Need (to): This means that it is necessary to do something.
Example: All new students need to spend time on revision before examinations.
Have to/have got to: this act as an alternative to must. We use ‘had to’ instead of ‘must’ when talking about the past.
A: When I was at school ,we had to get up at five every morning.
B: Really? These days, we have to be up by six.
Must: this modal verb expresses absolute necessity. In the speaker’s opinion, there is no choice! Often used in public notices.
Example: John must go to school early because of the exam.
He sent for me and I must go immediately.
ASSIGNMENT: Test on expressing obligation and necessity, (page 59-60) NOSEC Book 3.
ASPECT: COMPOSITION (ORAL).
TOPIC: “Corruption is worse than armed robbery”
What is corruption?
What does armed robbery mean?
Now, what effect does corruption and armed robbery have on the society? When critically looked at, the twin social vices are bad in themselves but it depends on how many convincing points the proposal/opponent is able to raise.
This topic is to be discussed in the class with the students. Points are to be raised by the students while the educator corrects and guide them where necessary. This topic is debatable, that is, one can choose to support or oppose it. It depends on the angle one is looking at it.
Students should be made to write on the points raised on this topic in the previous.( 250 words)
Literature: Revising Drama (use recommended text).
WEEK 9.Intonation Patterns(Statements, Questions and Command (NOSEC, pages 78, 90)
Remember that Yes/No questions and modal auxiliaries end with a rising tune while WH questions end with a falling tune.
Read the follow
The subject teacher revises the previous topic
He or she introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
The subject goes round to mark the pupil’s notes. He does the necessary corrections