Table of Contents

Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 6






Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to



  • Meaning of Communication
  • Means of Communication
  • Importance of Communication
  • Services provided by communication




Instructional Materials 

  • Textbook
  • Pictures
  • Online resources
  • Flashcards


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization


Topic: Communication


  1. Means of Communication
  2. Importance of Communication
  3. Services provided by communication

A. Meaning of Communication

Communication can be defined as the transfer or exchange of information or data between two or more parties. It is one of the aids to trade because it aids, assists or simplifies the art of buying & selling.

For communication to be effective, it must be clearly received, understood and acted upon.

Communication can be defined as the giving and receiving of messages or information between two or more parties. It is an aid to trade. For communication to be effective, it must be clearly received, understood and acted upon.

Communication involves the sender, the message being sent and the receiver. This is illustrated below:



Information or Message

Communication is not a one-way affair. The receiver also communicates the sender either directly or indirectly.


B. Means of Communication

1. Oral Communication: This is also known as verbal communication. It involves passing messages through spoken words. Verbal communication can take different forms such as

– Face to face

– Through telephone

– Via video conferencing

– Television and

– Public address system

2. Written Communication

This is the use of handwritten or typed message to pass meaningful information or messages. Commonly used means of written communication include:

– Letters

– Memos

– Reports

– Notices

– Fax

– Email

– Newsletters

– Internet

– Intranet

3. Visual Communication

This involves the use of non-verbal means such as charts, signs and display, diagrams to pass meaningful information e.g. many road signs are in visual form. Also a sign at the airport, hospitals, churches etc. e.g. No smoking signs and speed limits within an organization could be explained in visual form.

Financial reports of companies can be displayed using charts and diagrams.

4. Other Means of Communication:

Others means of communication apart from oral, written or visual include same traditional and modern means:

Some traditional means of communication include:

– Beating the gong or talking drum to pass meaningful message.

– Fire signals could be given to indicate emergency situations.

In Modern times bells and alarms could be used to send messages.



Means of communication can be broadly divided into two categories:

  1. Traditional means of communication
  2. Modern means of communication

Traditional Means of Communication

    1. Town Criers: These are used by community leaders to disseminate messages to members of the community.
    2. Gun Shots: these are used to announce or welcome important visitors and bid farewell to the dead.
    3. Talking drums: these are usually used during ceremonies or festivities. They communicate messages to their hearers.
    4. Striking or ringing of bells: This is used to signify the commencement of an event.
  1. Modern Means of Communication: these are faster and more effective than traditional means of communication. They include:
    1. The Post: This is done through post offices. The agency in charge of this is Nigerian Postal System (NIPOST)
    2. Telecommunication: This includes land phones, cell phones (popularly known as GSM –Global System for Mobile Telecommunication)
    3. Radio and Television
    4. Newspaper, magazine and journal
    5. Courier Services
    6. Internet services: this includes sending e-mails, e-banking, e-commerce, surfing the net, chatting, etc.


C. Importance of Communication

1. Communication makes it possible for buyers & sellers to negotiate and transact business.

2. Modern means of communication such as phones, internet help people to save time and money since they can keep in touth without movement.

3. Communication assists businesses to advertise their products and increase sales and hence profit.

4. It enables organization to run effectively and efficiently.

5. Communication helps people to transfer money from one place to another safety and cheaply.

6. It facilitates all forms of transportation: air, water and road.

7. Communication facilitates mail-order business and electronic commerce (e-commerce).


  1. Newspapers, radio and television enables the public to be aware of government policies, programmes, activities and other things happening around the world.
  2. It brings about closer contact between the buyer and the seller thus enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of business operations.
  3. It improves commerce by allowing people from different countries to buy and sell, sometimes without having to make physical contact.
  4. Communication promotes advertisement which leads to quick sales and enhanced profit.
  5. Communication assists in economic development of a country.


D. Services provided by Communication Agencies

communications service provider or CSP is a service provider that transports information electronically—for example, a telecommunications service provider. The term encompasses public and private companies in the telecom (landline and wireless), Internet, cable, satellite, and managed services businesses.

The market in which a communications service provider specializes is often a function of the industry served. These industries can be divided into three categories: telecommunications, entertainment and media, and Internet/Web services. Some communications service providers have branched into multiple areas. Others provide communications services across all major categories.

The term CSP came into vogue in the late 1990s. Prior to this time, communications businesses were highly specialized, with little overlap between traditional telecom, cellular, cable, and Internet companies. In the 1990s, deregulation (in the US, the Telecom Act of 1996) and technology convergence began to cause massive upheaval in the industry. As companies began to offer broader portfolios of communications services, traditional categories were inadequate to describe service providers. The term “communications service provider” is now widely accepted as a broad category encompassing all of these businesses.

In Nigeria, the organization that provide efficient communication services are shown below diagrammatically and further explained in details.

agencies communication

NIPOST: NIPOST stands for Nigerian Postal Services. It is involved in delivery of all forms of mail and remittance of money. They carry ordinary letters, express letters, registered letters parcel post, business rely services post restante airmail services.


ORDINARY LETTERS: NIPOST accepts and delivers ordinary letters within and outside the country with ordinary stamp affixed to the envelope.

EXPRESS LETTERS:- They are delivered faster than ordinary letters so they attract extra postage charges. Urgent messages/mails are delivered/sent through express mail.

REGISTERED LETTERS: There are used to send/deliver very important documents for safety. To register a letter two lives are drawn across the surface of the envelope (vertically and horizontally) with a slip being issues as a proof of registration. Registered letters also attract extra cost.

PARCEL POST: Bulky documents are sent by parcel post. The amount paid by the sender depends on the weight of the mail. Catalogues, books and magazines can be sent by parcel post and a certificate of posting is issued.

BUSINESS REPLY SERVICES: This service enables people to send replies to advertisements without affixing stamps to the envelopes. To enjoy this service, organizations must register with the post office and pay the required fees.

POSTE RESTANTE: This service enables people who travel often with no fixed or permanent address to receive postal packages. Their letters are safely kept and delivered to the right place of their choice at the right time.

AIRMAIL: Mails are carried by NIPOST from one destination to another by air. It is faster and more reliable but quite expensive.

POST OFFICE BOX: (P.O BOX) NIPOST allocates or issues out postal boxes which are numbered to individuals or organization. Letters are carefully sorted out by the post office officials into relevant boxes and keys are issued to the owners to enable them access their boxes to pick up letters with a duplicate copy with NIPOST.

PRIVATE MAIL BAG (PMB): NIPOST also allocates strong bags with security lock to individuals and organizations. Each bag has two keys. One with the individual owner of the bag and the other with NIPOST Staff/officials. All letters belonging to the owner concerned are inserted into their bags.

FRANKING MACHINES: A franking machine is a piece of machine or equipment used to make impressions of stamps on envelopes. Organizations that send large volumes of mail daily can subscribe to NIPOST for franking machines.

POSTAL ORDERS: NIPOST helps individuals to transfer money from one place to another because postal or transfer of money/cash in an envelope is not allowed and could be risky. It could be subjected to stealing or pilferage.

The postal order of a particular amount needed will be bought from the post office and sent to the named recipient within Nigeria. The recipients can “cash” the order by presenting them at another post office of their choice.

Postal order attracts a commission called “poundage”

MONEY ORDER: A money order can also be used to send money of a higher denomination or value to any part of the country. To enjoy this service, the sender pays the money worth to the post office, fill the form and state some vital information which the recipients will be asked to supply before collecting the money at the other post office.

NITEL: NITEL means Nigeria Telecommunications. It was established in 1985 NITEL has since been privatized and the ownership has been transferred to private individuals.

NITEL is involved in sending verbal and printed messages over short and long distances.

Some of the services provided by NITEL are as follows:

1. Local Calls: this service makes it possible for subscribers to make telephone calls within the same locality or town.

2. Trunk Calls: This service makes it possible for subscribers to make calls from one town to another town. To make trunk calls, a subscriber must first dial the code number of the other city before adding the other digits. E.g. the code number for Lagos is 01, Abuja 09, Ibadan 02, and Port-Harcourt 084.

3. International calls: this makes it possible for subscribers to make calls to other countries of the world. International calls attract higher charges and could be done directly or through the exchange.

4. Telex service: This enables printed messages to be sent through a teleprinter at a high speed. The teleprinter has a number and can also receive messages as long as it is switched on.

5. Satellite service: NITEL helps broadcast stations to air or transmit live events from other countries. The satellite has facilities to receive and send information.





Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.






  1. Communication is important in promoting activities in the following ways except:
    1. It leads to increased cost of production
    2. It promotes global business transactions through the internet
    3. It facilitates quick business contact and speedy delivery of messages to business partners
    4. It promotes effective international trade.
  2. Post offices in Nigeria are managed by a body called
    1. NICON
    2. NTA
    3. NITEL
    4. NIPOST
  3. The full meaning of GSM is
    1. Global System for Modern Communication
    2. Global Style for Mobile Communication
    3. Great System for Modern Communication
    4. Global System for Mobile Communication

Essay Test:

  1. a. What is communication?

b. List the different means of communication

c. Item four traditional means of communication.

d. Describe the method by which the following messages can be sent.

a. That there will be Town’s meeting in two weeks’ time at the village market square.

b. When a prominent member of the community is to be buried.

C. That morning prayer meeting of a church in the remote village is about to commence

d. A notice to the Village head to represent his village in a meeting in the city.

e Local government Chairman paid a visit to the village




The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections