Table of Contents

Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 4






Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to

  • I. say the meaning of Advertising

    ii. mention types of Advertising

    iii. highlight the functions of Advertising

    iv. explain the forms of Advertising media: -Radio, Television, Newspapers, Magazines, Handbills,

    Internet, Bill Boards etc.

    v. List some advertising Ethics.





Instructional Materials 

  • cheque book
  • invoice
  • receipt
  • a picture of an office


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization


Topic: Advertising


  1. Meaning of Advertising
  2. Types of Advertising
  3. Functions of Advertising
  4. Advertising Media
  5. Advertising Ethics

A. Meaning of Advertising

Advertising means calling the attention of members of the public (audience) to a product, service or an idea in order to encourage them to buy.

Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e., not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including old media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor advertising or direct mail; and new media such as search results, blogs, websites or text messages. The actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or “ad”.

Advertising can also be defined as a means by which a manufacturer tells the potential consumers about the existence of a product and other information about a product.

Advertising is the introduction of goods or products or a service to a consumer or an intending customer. Advertising a product means introducing it to potential consumers, pointing out its qualities and prices of the goods and services.

Advertisement is the spoken or the written words, graphic, pictures etc that conveys the information or message of the advertising.

FEATURES OF GOOD ADVERTISING: must arrest attention must convince the prospective to buy should create a permanent, good impression of the commodity in the mind of the buyers

B. Types of advertising

Advertising is of various types which are explained below

  1. Persuasive advertising: Persuasive advertising is the advert that has to do with a way of persuading or inducing people to buy a particular product rather than using sweet words to sell a product.
  2. Informative advertising: This is also called consumer education; it is designed to let the public know about a particular good. Informative advertising aim at informing people about a particular event that is about to happen.
  3. Competitive advertising: competitive advertising is designed to convince or persuade more customers to buy a particular product at the expense of other products to enable the advertiser increase its market share of the product.
  4. Specific advertising: This is a situation where a seller will focus its appeal to the consumers on a particular brand of the product.
  5. Mass advertising: This is a type of advertising jointly sponsored by a group of producer of similar products which emphasizes the general use of such products.

C. Objectives of Advertising

  1. Brand building – Advertising helps in the establishment and promotion of a brand in the existing market. It also aids in the creation of new market for the brand. With the help of audio-visual advertisements, you can also reminding and reinforce the brand message into your target customers’ mind.
  2. Creation of demand – One of the main objectives of advertising is that it persuades the customers to buy and use a particular product. Hence, advertising also contributes in creating brand awareness and demand. Also, advertising is the best option for promotion when it comes to launch of a new product or service. Effective and convincing advertisements do not only help establish a brand identity but also persuade competitor brand’s customers to switch to a new brand.
  3. Informing Customers about a Product, Company or Service – Advertising is also a strong medium of communicating about product, company or service. Companies can tell about features, qualities or unique characteristics of their product or service in the advertisement.
  4. Promoting a Particular Feature – Specific objectives of companies can also be fulfilled with the help of advertising. Building up more positive customer attitudes, beating negative promotion, extending customer base, creating comparison in customer’s mind and various other particular objectives can be attained by making a specific advertisement for the same.
  5. Achieve sales and profit goals – Advertisements create awareness about a brand and help in increasing the demand for a product or service. The increased demands results in increased sales and so, profit goals of a company are attained with the help of advertising.

D. Functions of Advertising

The functions of advertising are highlighted below as

  • Advertising provides information to customers about the usefulness of a product
  • It informs the general public about the products which a particular company is producing
  • In increases employment opportunities
  • It informs and educates the consumers about the use of a product or service
  • Advertising informs people where to obtain goods and services
  • It leads to improvement in the quality of goods
  • It increases the volume of sales which leads to a high standard of living
  • It creates demand and makes an effort to sustain the demand for goods and services
  • It directs potential consumers of a product to where such a product can be bought
  • It enables consumers to compare the quality of a product to the price.
  • It creates an avenue for consumers to make their choices
  • It ensures frequent use of goods and sustains demand
  • It makes a company gain popularity through consistent advertising
  • It enhances the turnover of the firm

E. Advertising Media

An advertising medium is a means by which products or services are advertised or introduced to the public. The different types of advertising media are

  • The print media: A print media is a means of passing information to the public through. They are in form of the newspapers, magazines, journals, posters, handbills etc.
  • The electronic advertising media: This comes in form of the radio, television, internet etc.
  • Signal: A signal is a sign giving information, instructions etc It is mostly used by local sellers (retailers) Example of signal is a hawker shouting on the road to call people’s attention to what she is selling.

Other advertising media include:

Direct Mail:

This is one of the oldest types of advertising media. Under this method message is sent to the prospective buyers by post. A mailing list is prepared for this purpose. Circular letters, folders, calendars, booklets and catalogues are sent under this type of advertising. In the sales letter an appeal is made to the buyers separately.

Film Advertising:

This is also known as cinema advertising. This also provides sight and hearing facilities like television. Short advertisement films are not prepared by big business houses which are sent to different cinema houses to be shown to the audience before the regular shows or during the intermission. It has more repetitive value but not to the same viewers. Its coverage is limited which benefits the local population only.

Outdoor Advertising:

This type of advertising include different media like posters, placards, electric displays or neon signs, sandwichmen, sky writing, bus, train and tram advertising. This is also known as ‘Mural advertising’. The main aim of outdoor advertising is to catch the attention of passerby within twinkling of an eye.

Window Display:

It is a common method which is usually undertaken by retailers who display their products in the shop windows in order to attract the customers. This is also known as exterior display.

Fairs and Exhibition:

A trade exhibition or a fair is organised on extensive scale which is attended by different manufacturers and traders along with their products to be sold to the large number of people who visit the exhibition. The exhibition may be either organised on local, provincial or international basis. The examples of some of the international exhibitions are FESTAC 77 of and Lagos International trade fair held every year.

Especially Advertising:

Most of the business houses in order to increase their sales, advertise their products, give free gifts like diaries, purses, paper weights and calendars to the customers. The name of the firm or the dealer is inscribed on the articles presented.

F. Advertising Ethics

Ethics means a set of moral principles which govern a person’s behavior or how the activity is conducted. And advertising means a mode of communication between a seller and a buyer.

Thus ethics in advertising means a set of well defined principles which govern the ways of communication taking place between the seller and the buyer. Ethics is the most important feature of the advertising industry. Though there are many benefits of advertising but then there are some points which don’t match the ethical norms of advertising.

An ethical ad is one which doesn’t lie, doesn’t make fake or false claims and is in the limit of decency.

Ethics in Advertising is directly related to the purpose of advertising and the nature of advertising. Sometimes exaggerating the ad becomes necessary to prove the benefit of the product. For e.g. a sanitary napkin ad which shows that when the napkin was dropped in a river by some girls, the napkin-soaked whole water of the river. Thus, the purpose of advertising was only to inform women about the product quality. Obviously, every woman knows that this cannot practically happen but the ad was accepted. This doesn’t show that the ad was unethical.

Ethics also depends on what we believe. If the advertisers make the ads on the belief that the customers will understand, persuade them to think, and then act on their ads, then this will lead to positive results and the ad may not be called unethical. But at the same time, if advertisers believe that they can fool their customers by showing any impractical things like just clicking fingers will make your home or office fully furnished or just buying a lottery ticket will make you a millionaire, then this is not going to work out for them and will be called as unethical.

Ethical ads should follow three moral principles – Truthfulness, Social Responsibility and Upholding Human Dignity.


  1. Define Advertising?
  2. Mention TWO Types of Advertising?
  3. List THREE Functions of Advertising?
  4. Mention THREE Advertising Ethics?



An advertising medium is a means through which information about goods and services is conveyed to the public or target audience. Advertising media include the following:

a) Television

b) Radio

c) Newspapers

d) Internet

e) Billboards

f) Magazines

g) Cinemas


The required information that is intended to establish a good image for the business,is often sent as news items through the television in order to serve a very large audience.

Advantages of using Television

  • The true form and colour of the product can be seen
  • The method of using the product can be demonstrated
  • It helps to reach very many audience especially in the urban centres


  • It is expensive
  • Impulse buying may be misleading
  • Only television owners can be aware of the product


There is little doubt that radio is at the reach of every home in Nigeria. It is thus,

an effective medium of advertisement as it can get to the remotest part of the country.

Advantage of using Radio

  • It has a very wide coverage
  • It is very cheap to possess
  • It is durable
  • It can use alternative power source e.g battery
  • It is portable


  • Advert on radio is usually short


Newspapers are an important means of advertising one`s goods and services. They are the most used medium of advertisement and are considered cheaper when compared with other means like radio and television.


Internet advertisement is the latest form of advertising in Nigeria and in many parts of the world.It is an electronic form of advertising products.

Advantages of internet

  • It is used to reach a very large population through its global coverage
  • It creates global market for the products


  • It can be accessed only by those who own computers and are connected to the internet
  • It can only reach those who are computer literate and are used to access the internet
  • It can easily be used for fraudulent practices


These are very large and tall sign-posts mounted in strategic locations in cities and towns. It is used to advertise goods.Often,a very large picture of the product or person being advertised is clearly shown on it.


These could be used within or outside the organization to inform employees and the public about a company`s activities. Magazines are usually weekly, monthly or quarterly publications and sometimes they cater for different categories of readers. Advertisement in magazines include pictures of the products being advertised, comments on the goods and services.


Special films are used to arouse consumers ` interest in order to build good image for the organization.

Other Media of Advertising include:

  • Signals
  • Trade journals
  • Posters
  • Handbills and leaflets
  • Loudspeakers
  • Neon light


I.The target audience

ii.The age group to which the medium appeals.

iii.The cost of using a particular medium

iv.The number of people reached by the chosen medium

v.The medium or media used by competitors


Advertising must follow some laid down procedures in order to ensure that consumers are protected.Thus, in line with advertising ethics/culture, advertisers must ensure that:

  • They are factual with the details of their products.
  • The reveal any side effects of their products.
  • They are not deceitful
  • They state the real prices of their products.
  • They conform to the standards of advertising a particular product/service.
  • Service providers conform to the ethics of their professions concerning advertisement.




Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.





1. What are advertising media?

2. List five forms of advertising media

3. What are the advantages of the internet as an advertising medium over other forms of media?


1. The business of giving information to the public about a product or service is (a) warehousing (b) advertising (c) transport (d) insurance

2. Which of the following is a negative function of advertising? (a) Provides information (b) creates brand loyalty (c) creates employment (d) persuades buyers

3. Which medium of advertising is best when product demonstration is needed? (a) Journals (b) magazines (c) newspapers (d) television

4. Which of these media will you advice a businessman to use in advertising his new soap? (a)journals (b) magazines (c)newspapers (d) television

5. To embark on product advertisement,it is necessary to do all the following except (a)studying the product quality (b)reporting other competitors to the government (c)measuring the prejudice (d)ascertaining customer`s buying habits

6. Which of the following advertising is audiovisual? (a) Posters (b) television (c) radio (d) magazines

7. for an advertised product to capture a large share of the market ,it has to satisfy the following conditions except

(a) create desire for it among the public (b) carry a clear message about its quality (c)arouse people`s interest (d)use only one medium of advertising

8.which medium of advertising could be found along Nigerian road?(a) bill boards (b)newspapers (c)radio (d)sales van



The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections