Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 5






Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to


  • Say the meaning of Transportation
  • List the importance of Transportation
  • Mention types of Transportation
  • Give the advantages and disadvantages of each type of Transportation




Instructional Materials 

  • Textbook
  • Pictures
  • Online resources
  • Flashcards


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization




Topic: Transport


  • Meaning of Transportation
  • Importance of Transportation
  • Types of Transportation
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of each type of Transportation

Meaning of Transportation

Transportation is one of the important things in our life. If there was no transportation, how would we go somewhere or how would goods be transported? In ancient times, new places were explored and also nowadays, space is being discovered through transportation. If nothing moves, nothing happens. Namely, life without transportation cannot be thought. Many things have been invented for transportation until now. The wheel was invented in about 3000 BC. From that time to now, transportation styles and vehicles have changed incredibly. According to their places transportation can be divided into three groups which are land, sea and air transportation.

As an aid to trade, transportation is the process of moving goods and people from one place to another. It is the life-blood of an economy. Without transportation goods produced cannot get to the final consumer and thus, production cannot be complete.

Transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations.

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.

The purpose of transport is to make possible the transfer of people and goods from one place to another, whether locally or across the world.

Transport is necessary in order to allow the exchange of goods between different parts of a country or between different countries.

Good and efficient transport is a key factor in mass production where the goods can reach the consumer from the production site or factory which is situated many miles away.

For example, rice has to be transferred from the rice fields in the northern states of the country to the processing plants and then the finished product needs to be transported to the consumer within the country or to overseas. The purpose of transport is to make possible the transfer of people and goods from one place to another, whether locally or across the world.

Importance of Transportation

1.  Increased transport facilities have brought our world so close together which has resulted in an interdependent world

2. Transport can open new doors so that places which were once considered to be out of reach are easily accessible

3. The construction of railways has further facilitated the transport of goods from one part of the country to another and all over the world

4. Easy air transport has enabled the distribution of foodstuff from one part of the world to another in their fresh state

5. Road transport has also made places within the reach of individuals with the increasing use of cars which offer convenience to the owner

6. Due to the increase development in each type of transport, it provides a safe, speedy and cheap means of transport for goods thereby increasing their demand worldwide and making it possible for producers to engage in mass production and specialization.

7. Transportation makes it possible for manufacturers to get raw materials to factories and carry finished goods from factories to their final consumers.

8. It facilitates the movement of people from one place to another

9. It facilitates the distribution of goods and thus encourages mass production of goods. For example, Cocoa produced in Nigeria is transported to other countries, and this increases the production of cocoa in Nigeria.

10. It provides employment for workers within the transport system, thereby helping to improve the standard of living.

11. As a life-blood of the economy, it contributes to gross national product and national income.

12. By contributing to national income, on the long run, it gears the nation towards economic development.

Types of Transportation

There are several ways to transfer people and goods from one person to another and the following diagram shows the possibilities:

Types of transport LAND
a) Road –

The first group is land transportation. Cars, trucks, vans and pickups are examples of this group. These vehicles move on wheels and they can go everywhere on land. Land transportation is the most common way in the world. It is always prefered for short distances. Most of us use this way every day. There are sixteen million land vehicles in Turkey. This means a fifth person has a land vehicle.

b) Rail

c) Pipeline

Air Transport –

The last group is air transportation. Airplanes, helicopters, cargo planes and jumbo jets are member of this group. Although this way was used for wars, nowadays it is mostly used for passenger transportation. Since it is the fastest way and not very expensive, it has become a very common way. There are sixty-seven airports in Turkey, but forty-five of them are being used. People can go to another country in a few hours by using this way. According to investigations, although airline is the fastest way, this way is the safest one.


a) Sea Transport –

The second group is sea transportation. This group includes ships, boats, ferries and yachts. This way is used since ancient times. If we ignore congest of Istanbul, these vehicles go to sea through buoyant. Sea way is the slowest way. However, sea vehicles can be very big. Therefore, they can transport huge amounts. Moreover, it is always used for touring in Turkey.

b) Tramps

Advantages and Disadvantages of each type of Transportation

Road Transport

Road Transport is by far the most important type of transport used to transport both people and goods


1. It’s much quicker than rail over short distance as there is no intermediate handling

2. Door to door delivery reduces the chance of damage or theft and is generally more convenient

3. It’s usually cheaper than rail for smaller loads and over shorter distances – lower operating costs and less handling

4. Delivery times and routes are more flexible compared with other forms of transport


1. It is much less suited for carrying large quantities of bulk goods such as coal and iron ore

2. It can be slower than rail over long distances, because of traffic jam

3. Road vehicles can carry only a certain maximum weight

4. Road transport is more likely to be disrupted in bad weather conditions compared with rail

5. More pollution in terms of air and noise and also, they can damage roads or buildings

Rail Transport

1. Rail transport is the most economical and cheap type of transport of goods over long distance

2. They are most suitable type of transport for heavy or bulky goods like coal, iron, timber

3. They also provides the facilities of special containers for specialized items like oil, tin and livestock


1. Bulky goods like coal and iron can be handled more cheaply than by road transport, where a large number of vehicles would be needed to transport the same quantity carried by one train

2. Over long distance, rail can be faster than road

3. Rail routes go direct to the centre of cities and avoid road traffic jam

4. Less damage to the environment

5. Very bad weather conditions are less likely to halt rail transport than road


1. Rail transport itself cannot generally make door to door delivery

2. They are slower in term of short distance delivery

3. The need to transfer goods increases the risk of theft and damage

4. Rail has very high fixed costs because of the need to operate and maintain its own permanent way and stations

5. Due to the cost of transfer and operation, rail tends to be more expensive than road especially over short distances

6. Rail transport has to run to fairly rigid timetables, whereas road transport is more flexible


A major use of pipelines is in the transport of crude oil, gas and water as this is safe means of transport


1. Once they are built they cost very little to use since it requires little or no maintenance

2. A continuous flow of the product is more guaranteed as pipelines are not normally affected by the weather or labour strikes

3. There are less pollution compared to vehicles and there is greater safety especially for flammables


1. It’s limited in use when considering the type of product which can be carried

2. Once built, they can be used only for one type

3. Installation costs are high as they are usually placed underground and its for long term use.

Air Transport

Air Transport plays a important role in helping to transport urgent needed goods.

Although the charges is high, it is a safe means of transport and prevents damage or loss and also keep the goods like flowers fresh.

Advantages speed which makes air transport a very quick method over long distances

2.Suitable for carrying perishable goods e.g vegetables, fresh flowers etc.

3. Light valuable goods such as diamonds can be transferred with less fear of theft and therefore the insurance rates are low

4. Expensive equipment such as computers can be carried with less fear of damage and less packing is needed

5. People can reach destinations very quickly thus saving time and energy


1. Air is an expensive means of transport especially for heavy bulky goods such as cement and coal

2. Limited capacity, can only carry specifi volume and weight.

3. Bad weather conditions are more likely to delay or halt air transport compared with land or sea transport.

Sea Transport

1. An economical means of transport for bulky and heavy goods such as timber, iron and grains.

2. Has been aided and is made more rapid by introduction of containerization which has made loading and unloading easier and reduce the risk of damage of goods.

3. Specially designed truck can carry the containers and deliver them right up to the consignee’s door.

4. Refrigeration facilities are also provided for meat and dairy products to prevent from getting spoil.


1. It has easy accessibility to most countries

2. It is suitable for heavy and bulky goods

3. It’s the cheapest mode of transport


1. It’s quite slow.

2. It can cause delays at the port due to shortage of labour.

3. There are risk of deterioration due to the salt water.

4. It depends on the weather and tide conditions.

In conclusion, transportation is already in our daily life and we need to use it. So it is the one of indispensable thing in our life. We always need to go from somewhere to another and goods needs to be transported. For all these, there are different transportations. We always use land way to go home, school, work or anywhere else. So, we can reach land vehicles everywhere. Goods are always transported by ships. It is slower, but it is cheap way and it can take huge amounts. For long distances we always use airlines, as it is so fast. You can reach everywhere you like. Namely, transportation is part of our life.

Business Studies JSS 3 First Term




Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.




Objective Test:

  1. Road transport is preferred to others because
    1. The fare is the cheapest.
    2. It is best for carrying heavy goods.
    3. Armed robbers do not go near the vehicles.
    4. It is the fastest means.
    5. It provides door to door services.
  2. Which of these is not a means of road transportation?
    1. Okada
    2. Donkeys
    3. Trailers
    4. Ferries
    5. Tricycle
  3. All of the following are means of water transportation except:
    1. Ferries
    2. Boats
    3. Camels
    4. Ships
    5. Canoes
  4. Transportation performs the following positive functions except:
    1. It makes goods and services available in any part of Nigeria
    2. It provides jobs for people
    3. It is makes goods and services to be expensive
    4. It encourages traveling and tourism.
  5. The cheapest means of transporting heavy and bulky goods over long distances in Nigeria is by _________
    1. Truck
    2. Buses
    3. Ship
    4. Trailer
    5. Rail
  6. What is the meaning of transportation?

    a. The process of moving goods or people from one place to another

    b. The act of traveling from one place to another


  7. . What is the best mode of transportation?

    a. Airplane

    b. Car


  8.  What are the benefits of transportation?

    a. It helps us move goods and people from one place to another

    b. It helps us travel from one place to another


  9.  What are the drawbacks of transportation?

    a. It can be expensive

    b. It can be slow


  10.  What are the most common modes of transportation?

    a. Car

    b. Bus

  11. Why is transportation important?

    A. To get people and goods from one place to another

    B. To pollute the environment


  12.  What are some of the modes of transportation?

    A. Air, land, and water

    B. Train, plane, and automobile

    C. Truck, bus, and railway


  13.  What are the benefits of transportation?

    A. It helps boost the economy

    B. It helps people get around

    C. It pollutes the environment


  14.  What are the negative effects of transportation?

    A. It can cause traffic jams and pollution

    B. It is expensive

    C. It is dangerous

Essay Test:

    1. Explain the term ‘Transportation
    2. Mention 3 important reasons why transportation is crucial in business.
    3. List the five types of transportation in Nigeria
    4. Write two advantages of each
    5. Write two disadvantages of each
    6. By what means of transportation can the following goods be carried? Give reasons for your answers.
      • Palm produce from Owerri to Lagos.
      • Groundnut from Kano to Lagos.
      • Construction equipment from Ibadan to Kaduna.
      • Some perishable agricultural products from Sokoto to Lagos.
    7.  What are the main methods of transport? Mention four.
    8. What are the different types of transportation? Mention four.


    9. What is the purpose of transportation? Mention four.


    10. What are the benefits of transportation? Mention four.


    11. What are the drawbacks of transportation? Mention four.


    12. How can transportation be improved? Mention four.


The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections