DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
JSS 1 / BASIC 7
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Previous Knowledge :
The pupils have previous knowledge of Agriculture in their previous lesson
Behavioural Objectives : At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- define agriculture
- mention at least four importance of agriculture
- list agricultural produce that are use as raw materials in industries
DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
- Definition of Agriculture
- Importance of Agriculture to the Individual
- Importance of Agriculture to the Society
- Importance of Agriculture to the Nation
- Types of Agriculture based on Levels of Production: Subsistence & Commercial Agriculture
Definition of Agriculture
Agriculture can be defined as the art and science which deals with the growing of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use.
Importance of Agriculture
Agriculture plays an important role in the development of all nations. It used to be the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy and that of other developing countries. The importance of agriculture can be grouped into three categories:
Importance of Agriculture to the Individual
- Provision of food: This is the most important contribution of agriculture to man because food is required for our survival. People need food in order to live. Farm animals also need food. The food could be meat, eggs, and milk from farm animals and products from many different crops such as yam, rice, maize etc.
- Provision of shelter materials: This helps to protect man from adverse weather conditions and predators. Agriculture is a source of materials used in building houses. Materials such as timber and leaves are used in building houses.
- Provision of materials for clothing: Agriculture provides fibre, silk and cotton from plants for textile production, hides and skins as well as wool from sheep for clothing, shoes, belts and bags.
- Provision of income: Agriculture provides income for farmers when they sell crop products like yam, rice, plantain, cocoa etc and farm products like meat, milk, eggs and skin.
- Provision of transportation: Some farm animals or livestock are used as means of transportation and carrying of loads particularly in the north such as horses, donkeys and camels.
- Provision of medicine: Some plants that have medicinal values such as the Neem tree, ginger, lemon grass etc. are used as drugs to cure ailments. E.g neem and lemon grass leaves are used to cure malaria. Ginger is used to cure catarrh, etc.
NB: Agriculture meets the three basic needs of man.
Importance of Agriculture to the Society
- Provision of employment: This is the main contribution of Agriculture to the society. It is the largest income-generating sector in Nigeria. It employs about 60-70% of the people. The majority of people who reside in rural areas are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture provides employment for people in two ways:
(i) As a means of self-employment for those directly involved in crop and animal husbandry, processing and marketing of produce, etc.
(ii) As a source of paid employment such as in the Ministry of Agriculture, schools and colleges, research institutes, banks and agro-allied industries.
- Development of rural areas: Agriculture brings about construction of good roads, provision of pipe borne water, electricity and school for the children of farmers in the villages.
- Provision of recreation and sport: Some farm animals provide form of amusement and other are used for sporting activities. It leads to the establishment of game reserves and parks (e.g. Obudu Cattle Ranch, Yankari Game Reserve etc., and bull fights, polo games, horse race, cock fight, fishing festivals, etc.
- Production of crops and animal products used during cultural and religious ceremonies: Almost all Nigerian tribes present kola-nut and bitter kola during a marriage ceremony. Some crops and animal products e.g palm-oil, alligator pepper, honey, fish, fowl, cattle etc. are used during naming, marriage and burials. Specific animals are also use for sacrifices and burial ceremonies. For instance, dog is used when worshiping Ogun, (the god of iron). Ram is also used during Muslim festivals while cattle is used during burials.
Importance of Agriculture to the Nation/Economy of the Country
- Provision of foreign exchange earnings: This is the most important contribution of agriculture to the economy of the country. It provides foreign exchange or currency such as dollar, pound sterling when agricultural products such as cocoa, groundnuts, rubber, coffee, palm produce etc. are exported to other countries.
- Provision of market for industrial goods: Agriculture provides a ready market for industrial goods such as farm machinery, chemicals, fertilizers, storage and processing facilities.
- Source of revenue for the government: Government receives a lot of revenue from the export of agricultural products through export duties and tax. The revenue is used to service other sector of the economy. It also boosts internally generated revenue of the government (taxes collected from the farmers, agro-based industries, foresters etc).
- 4. Provision of food for the working population: Agriculture helps to provide the needed nourishment for the working population thereby, boosting their productivity.
- Provision of raw materials for industries: Agriculture supplies various industries with raw materials for their continuous existence or production. Industries that depend on agriculture for their materials are called agro-allied or agro-based industries.
Examples of Agro-allied Industries and their Materials Used
|Raw materials used
cereals e.g maize
Groundnut cake, etc.
||Tube, tyre, hoses, etc.
cardboards, envelopes, etc.
||Cocoa, coffee, tea
Milo, Bournvita etc.
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
- Define the term ’Agriculture’.
- Apart from supply of raw materials to industries, list four other contributions of agriculture to nation building.
- Agriculture helps to meet the three basic needs of man. Name them.
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.