Sub – Topic 1: The
Origin of Agriculture
Agriculture is as old as the early
man. The earliest man practiced fruit gatherings and hunting of animals, which
they used as food. The early man and his family fed on wild animals, roots,
leaves and fruits collected as they wander from place to place. The type and quantity
available at the time required irregular, uncertain and subject to the
conditions they found themselves they continued with their nomadic life until
they could no longer carry their families about.
beginning of agriculture and the early farming tools
As families increased, a more
settled form of agriculture became inevitable. As they settled for a
long time in a place, they
discovered that some of the seeds of fruits thrown around their dwelling place
germinated, grew and produced the same fruits of their kinds. They started to
cultivate the land, sowed seeds, took care of the growing crops, harvested
them, and made use of them. Also, captured young animals were tamed. They grew
and gave birth to young ones, fed them and later killed them and used them as
meat. The tools used by the early man for cultivating crops include wooden
sticks with burnt ends and sharp edges. While the tools used for hunting
animals include stones, bow and arrows strong sticks and ropes.
 In the history of
Agriculture four stages are very pronounced. These are :
i. Hunting and gathering stage:The early men went about gathering
fruits ,leaves, roots of wild plants and hunting wild animals in other to
obtain daily food.They used primitive tools likes stones,bows and arrows ,
traps and ropes.It is a very dangerous way to obtain food.
ii. Subsistence Farming stage:The primitive man found out that whenever
he threw away seeds of recognized useful plants around his house, the seeds
grew into new and useful plants He also found that he could capture some young
animals or their pregnant mothers and look after the young ones when they were
born.This is the beginning  of crop and
animal farming to take care of their family
iii. Cash crop production stage:As time went by  primitive man learn how to grow his crops and
rear the animals in a better way.He began to produce cash crops.
iv.Commercial Farming stage: This is the
stage when men started producing crop and animals on large scale not only for
family needs but also for sale.
Explain the Origin of agriculture?
How were the early men surviving
before the cultivation of crops started?
Mention some of the food they were
How did planting of crops start?
How were the animals tamed by early
What were the tools of early
Mention the four stages in the
development of Agriculture
2: Improvement of Agriculture from Primitive to modern Agriculture.
The men were usually out for hunting
while the women helped to prepare the gathered crops and dressed the animals
for food. As man increases in knowledge and technology, better-improved crops
and animals were produced. Also, improved farming equipments such as cutlasses,
spade, hoes and wheelbarrows replaced the primitive tools. More improvement
being made gave rise to machines such as tractors, bulldozer, modern
implements, etc that are now used these days.

Explain how primitive agriculture
grew to modern farming methods and improved farm machines
two primitive tools and two improved metals tools used by the early man.

Intensive Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.

Essentials of Agricultural Science
for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest ChukwudiAnie.

Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper
Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.

Prescribed Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.