TOPIC: BRANCHES/FORMS OF AGRICULTURE
Scope of Agriculture
ii.Forms of Agriculture.
Sub Topic 1: Scope
Agriculture involves more than just
planting of crops and rearing of animals. It is broad in scope. It is made up
of many branches of science. The study of agriculture involves the biology of
plants and animals, the Chemistry and Physics of soils, mathematics and other
areas. Hence, the study of agriculture as a subject is regarded as agricultural
scope and branches of agriculture includes Basic
agriculture, Animal science, soil, crop science, Horticulture, fishery,
forestry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Veterinary machine
and Agricultural Engineering.
agriculture/agricultural education deals
with the study of agricultural science as a subject i.e the teaching of
agriculture in schools. A specialist in this area is called agricultural
Animal science deals with the study of the various farm animals. A specialist in
this area is called animal scientist.
deals with the study of the types of soils. A specialist in this area is called
a soil scientist .
deals with the study of the various type of crops that are cultivated farmers.
A specialist in this area is called a crop scientist. Crop science is divided
into three: Agronomy(the study of crops
and soil ), Pathology(the study of plant and animal diseases), Entomology(the
study of insects and pests).
deals with of flowers and fruits. Horticulture is divided into three: Pomology
(the study of fruits), Floriculture(the study of vegetables), Floriculture(the
study of flowers). A specialist in this area is
Called a Horticulturist.
with rearing of fish and other aquatic organisms e.g. fish, crabs, crayfish,
shrimps, etc. A specialist in this area is called a fishery officer.
deals with forest trees and forest
management . A specialist in this area is called a forest officer or forest
Agricultural economics deals with how to run agriculture as a profitable business. A specialist in this area is called
Agricultural extension deals with the carrying of information from the research stations to
the farmers in the rural areas. A
specialist in this area is called extension officer or extension agent.
Agricultural engineering deals with the study of agricultural tools and machines used in agriculture. A specialist in this
area known as agricultural engineer.
Veterinary medicine deals with the disease of farm animals. A specialist in this area is called a
veterinarian (Veterinary doctor).
Why is agriculture regarded as a
List eight branches of agriculture.
Sub-Topic 2: FORMS OF AGRICULTURE
A.Crop farming: It involves the production of different types of
crops. They are mostly used as food for man, feed for animals and raw materials
for industries Examples of such crops(annual) include maize, rice, mille,
sorghum, yam, potatoes, pepper, Soya-bean, groundnut, tomatoes, okra, etc.
Other farmers practice the growing
of perennial or permanent crops such as cocoa, oil palm, coffee, rubber,
citrus, cashew, kola, guava, mango etc which are also known as cash crops. The
system of cropping on a piece of land varies from one place to another and from
one farmer to the other. Those who engage in commercial farming for profit
making often adopt mono-cropping system (i.e. growing of only one type of crop
on the same piece of land at the same time), while most local farmers prefer
the growing of different crops on the same piece of land (mixed cropping).
B. Horticulture (Ornamental Plants)
Horticulture is a form of
agriculture, which deals with the growing of different kinds of vegetables,
fruits and ornamental plants. The vegetable crops include , okra, tomato, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber, egg
plant, water leaves, spinach, bitter leaves, amaranthus etc. Examples of fruits
include cashew, citrus, mango, avocado
pear, banana, pawpaw, apple, guava etc,
while ornamental crops are commonly grown for the beautification of the
environment .They include pride of Barbados, hibiscus, croton, zinnia, ixora,
queen of the night, and rose flowers, etc
vegetables and fruits are source of
minerals and vitamins to human bodies, ornamental plants are very useful for
landscaping , attractive parks, gardens, buildings, place of worship, hotels,
Fishery (fish farming) refers to production of fish and other
aquatic organisms, either for domestic use or profit oriented venture.
Types of Fish good for fish farming
Important of Fish
Good Source of Protein
Contains lesser cholesterol than
Demand for fish is very high – for
both rich and poor
It is recommended for dieting and some
vegetarians who do not eat meat
Requirements for Fish farming.
Pond (Earthen concrete, plastic or
galvanized tank can be used as pond
Source of water could be natural
stream, lake, borehole water
Feeds e.g. plankton
What is crop farming?
State the difference between annual
and perennial crops.
What cropping system do the local
farmers that are growing different crops on the same piece of land apply?
List 10 vegetable crops common in
List 5 ornamental plants commonly
used for beautifying the environment like school, church.
With two example each, state the
difference between fruit vegetable and leaf vegetable.
Junior secondary Agriculture
(workbook 1) byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al pages
Visit the school fish pond and find out the names of fish there in.
Intensive Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okaro.
Essentials of Agricultural Science
for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest ChukwudiAnie.
Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper
Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
Prescribed Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.