Why is agriculture regarded as a
List eight branches of agriculture.
Sub-Topic 2: FORMS OF AGRICULTURE
A.Crop farming: It involves the production of different types of
crops. They are mostly used as food for man, feed for animals and raw materials
for industries Examples of such crops(annual) include maize, rice, mille,
sorghum, yam, potatoes, pepper, Soya-bean, groundnut, tomatoes, okra, etc.
Other farmers practice the growing
of perennial or permanent crops such as cocoa, oil palm, coffee, rubber,
citrus, cashew, kola, guava, mango etc which are also known as cash crops. The
system of cropping on a piece of land varies from one place to another and from
one farmer to the other. Those who engage in commercial farming for profit
making often adopt mono-cropping system (i.e. growing of only one type of crop
on the same piece of land at the same time), while most local farmers prefer
the growing of different crops on the same piece of land (mixed cropping).
B. Horticulture (Ornamental Plants)
Horticulture is a form of
agriculture, which deals with the growing of different kinds of vegetables,
fruits and ornamental plants. The vegetable crops include , okra,tomato, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber, egg
plant, water leaves, spinach, bitter leaves, amaranthus etc. Examples of fruits
includecashew, citrus, mango, avocado
pear, banana, pawpaw, apple, guavaetc,
while ornamental crops are commonly grown for the beautification of the
environment .They include pride of Barbados, hibiscus, croton, zinnia, ixora,
queen of the night, and rose flowers, etc
vegetables and fruits are source of
minerals and vitamins to human bodies, ornamental plants are very useful for
landscaping , attractive parks, gardens, buildings, place of worship, hotels,
Fishery (fish farming)refers to production of fish and other
aquatic organisms, either for domestic use or profit oriented venture.
Types of Fish good for fish farming
Important of Fish
Good Source of Protein
Contains lesser cholesterol than
Demand for fish is very high – for
both rich and poor
It is recommended for dieting and some
vegetarians who do not eat meat
Requirements for Fish farming.
Pond (Earthen concrete, plastic or
galvanized tank can be used as pond
Source of water could be natural
stream, lake, borehole water
Feeds e.g. plankton
What is crop farming?
State the difference between annual
and perennial crops.
What cropping system do the local
farmers that are growing different crops on the same piece of land apply?
List 10 vegetable crops common in
List 5 ornamental plants commonly
used for beautifying the environment like school, church.
With two example each, state the
difference between fruit vegetable and leaf vegetable.
This involves the production of different kinds of crop plants useful to man and animals. Crop plants are either called food or arable crops and cash crops. Crops that are eaten by man either cooked or raw are referred to as food crops e.g. cassava, yam, vegetable, potatoes, bean, cowpea, soya bean, maize, guinea corn etc. Crops cultivated with the aim of selling them either to our local industries or for export is called cash crops e.g cocoa, cotton, groundnut, oil palm, timber, coffee, etc.
Rearing of Livestock
This is the rearing of farm animals by feeding them, they grow and reproduce their young ones. Examples of farm animals raised on the farm by the farmers are rabbits, pigs, goats, sheep, cattle and poultry birds like duck, geese, turkey, guinea fowl, pigeon and domestic fowls.
Salving of Farm Produces/Processing and Storage of Farm Produce
Farm produce has to be salvaged to prevent spoilage.
Processing: Is the act of transforming freshly harvested agricultural produce into new forms for consumption, storage or sales. It results in reduction in bulkiness before consumption or transportation and enhances their keeping quality. Some processing methods include:
- Winnowing, e.g cereals,
- Shelling and bagging e.g maize,
- Decorticating e.g groundnut,
- Sun/oven drying, smoking, e.g fish
- Parboiling, drying and milling e.g rice
- Grinding and sieving e.g cassava
- Ginnery to produce lint e.g cotton etc.
Agricultural produce can be preserved by drying, freezing, smoking, pasteurization, canning etc. The method used depend on the nature of produce and purpose of preservation.
The reasons for preserving farm produce include
- Prevention of microbial growth.
- Protection from discolouration.
- Retention of food quality.
- Provision of planting materials.
- To make certain food crops available all through the year.
Storage: Is the act of keeping safe and free from spoilage, harvested or processed agricultural produce before been sold, planted, consumed or transported.
To enhance proper storage, the produce has to be properly dried to reduce the moisture content to a level that will not allow the growth of microbes like bacteria and fungi.
Storage facilities available for use include silo, cribs, racks, barns, earthen pots, air-tight containers, refrigerators/freezers, crate etc.
Rearing of Fish (fishery)
Fishery is the act of rearing selected species of fishes e.g tilapia, catfish etc. under scientifically controlled condition in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams, river etc where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for sale. The study of fish and other aquatic animals such as shrimps, crayfish, lobster, crabs etc is referred to as aquaculture.
Importance of Fishery
- Good source of protein
- Source of employment
- For scientific and educational research
- For aesthetic purposes e.g aquarium.
Requirements for Fish Farming
- Pond (Earthen, concrete, plastic or galvanized tank can be used as pond
- Source of water could be natural stream, lake, borehole water
- Fingerlings – newly hatched fish
- Feeds e.g. plankton
This is scientific study and practice of cultivating vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants for profit and pleasure. A person who practice horticulture is referred to as horticulturist.
This can be divided into three:
- Pomology: This is the scientific study and practice of growing fruit crops e.g. orange, mango, apple, cashew etc.
- Olericulture: This deals with the growing of vegetable such as leafy vegetables e.g. lettuce, cabbage, fluted pumpkin (ugu); root vegetables e.g tomato, cucumber, garden egg etc.
- Floriculture: This is the growing of flowers and other ornamental crops e.g. hibiscus, rose flower, Queen of the night, pride of Barbados etc.
Ornamental plants are plants grown for the beautification of our environment.
This deals with rearing and breeding of selected species of snails.
Importance of Snails
- Source of income
- For medicinal purposes: It is meat is recommended for the treatment of diabetics, hypertension, poor eye- sight.
- Also the liquid is recommended for the treatment of asthma, blood deficiency, etc.
Features of Snails
- It is in a class called molluscs
- It is tough and blue-blooded
- It is covered with shell
- It is a seasonal meat (found only in rainy season). There is therefore, high demand for snail as meat hence, the need to keep it domestically.
The houses are of various forms to suit your need in terms of space and capital available.
- Piled motor tyres with net lid
- Pots or drums constructed
- Hutches or cages/boxed fenced pens
- Plantain plantation fenced with net wire.
Management or Skills Required
Choose the breed that can lay more eggs – male and female. It is cheaper than any other livestock to run comparing the input with the expected return. The labour is simple and feeding is not costly. The source of breed is very simple – you purchase the breed that will benefit your project in terms of high yield. Snails feed on green leaves of cocoyam, cassava, pawpaw, spinach, waterleaf, centrosemna and unripe fruits such as pawpaw, banana, plantain, tomato, etc; tubers and flowers. Salt should not be added to any snail feed to prevent them from dying.
This is the art and science of keeping bees to produce honey and other by-products. Honey bee colony is artificially constructed bee hives by humans.
A bee keeper (apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect honey and bee-wax, to pollinate crops or to produce bees for sale to other bees keepers.
Bee-wax is used for the production of polish, candle and cosmetics while the honey is used for medicinal purposes.
It is easy to establish and requires small area of land.
A location where bees are kept is called an apiary.
The housing facility for bees is called hive.