Classes of food Carbohydrate protein, fat & oil, vitamins, minerals

Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

Second  Term


Week 8

Class :

Basic 4 / Year 4 / Primary 4


Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of human body feeding system   in their  previous lesson

Topic :


Food (types and uses)

(A). Classes of food
Carbohydrate protein, fat & oil, vitamins, minerals

(B) Uses of food
Energy sources, body building protection


Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Explain the meaning of food
  • Mention the classes of food
  • List the importance of food
  • Give examples of energy giving food
  • Mention types of food that are body protective food

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Take Away Pack of Food .
  • Related Online Video on Classes of Food
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

Food (types and uses)

(A). Classes of food
Carbohydrate protein, fat & oil, vitamins, minerals

(B) Uses of food
Energy sources, body building protection





Food is any subsistence either liquid or semi solid  that in taken into the body system in order to sustain and  maintain life . Food is also needed for proper  body growth function and development .

It is  defined as edible substance taken into the body through the mouth to nourish our body and give us energy to work. Common examples of food are rice, plantain, potato, mango, banana, yam, egg. There are seven characteristics which separate living things from non-living things. Can you remember them? Feeding, i.e. eating of food is one of them. Feeding is the taking in of food by living things. You take in food through the mouth. Most animals take in food through the mouth. It is not very easy to see plants feeding. Another word for feeding is nutrition. Nutrition is all about how living things take in food and use that food.



Food preparation: cooked and uncooked

You now know why you eat food. You also know where food comes from. Some foods must be cooked before we eat them. There are some foods which we do not need to cook. We eat them raw. We prepare our food in a number of different ways. In preparing some foods we add salt, pepper and onions. Why do you think we add these things? When food is cooked, some changes may be noticed. Think of the changes that you have noticed. Write them down in a list. Did you include color, taste, smell and feel in your list of things that change when food is cooked? You will now find out why different food items are prepared in different ways before being eaten.




There are six classes of food namely:

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Protein
  3. Vitamin
  4. Fats and oils
  5. Mineral salt
  6. Water



1.Carbohydrates : Carbohydratesare energy giving foods , Some of them appear in white colour . Examples of food items that are carbohydrates are rice, yam, bread, sweet maize, cassava , etc. Energy foods contain a lot of carbohydrates. Our body uses the carbohydrates to make energy for itself.



2. Protein : Proteins are body building food. These foods come mainly from animals or plants . Examples of proteins are: meat, beans, egg, milk, fish chicken.



3. Vitamins : Vitamins are also known as health foods. Health foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. They keep your body healthy and against illness. Examples are: carrot, lime, carrot , pawpaw, watermelons ,orange, lettuce, cabbage, banana, mango. etc.



4 .Fats and oils : Our body also gets energy from fats and oils. Examples are: palm oil, vegetable oi, peanut, coconut oil, butter and margarine.



5. Mineral salts :  Mineral salts are food supplements. They are needed in only small quantities. Examples are  Chlorine and sodium.  table salt, soda,  etc.


6. Water : Water is needed for the proper digestion of food .Water aids the digestion and absorption of food, It also regulates the body temperature system . Water removes waste from the body system


Uses Of Food 

  • Food provides the body the necessary required energy or strength for our day to day activities
  • Food makes us to grow and develop properly .
  • Food protects us from diseases or infection
  • Food develops and repairs muscles and tissues.
  • Keeping the body in good working order.




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  1. What is food
  2. mention any four classes of food and give out three food examples of each class




Prepare for the next lesson by reading about  classes of food



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