# Symmetry on Plane Shapes Horizontal and Vertical lines 4 Cardinal Points Primary 4 Third Term Lesson NotesÂ Mathematics Week 9

### Detailed Lesson Plan Presentation

Subject: Mathematics
Class: Primary 4
Term: Third Term
Week: 9
Topic: Symmetry on Plane Shapes: Horizontal and Vertical Lines, 4 Cardinal Points
Duration: 45 minutes

#### Behavioural Objectives

• Students will identify horizontal and vertical lines of symmetry in plane shapes.
• Students will understand the concept of symmetry using the four cardinal points.
• Students will apply knowledge of symmetry to solve simple problems.

#### Key Words

• Symmetry, Plane Shapes, Horizontal, Vertical, Cardinal Points.

#### Entry Behaviour

• Recall previous lessons on shapes and directions.

#### Learning Resources and Materials

• Whiteboard and markers
• Flashcards with plane shapes
• Illustrations of horizontal and vertical lines
• Worksheets on symmetry

#### Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge

• Review shapes and their characteristics.
• Discuss cardinal points and their relevance to directions.

#### Embedded Core Skills

• Critical thinking
• Problem-solving
• Visual perception

#### Learning Materials

• Lagos State Scheme of Work
• Lagos State Mathematics Textbook for Primary 4

#### Instructional Materials

• Real-life objects with symmetry
• Flashcards and illustrations
• Interactive whiteboard for demonstrations

### Understanding Symmetry on Plane Shapes

1. Symmetry: đ
• Symmetry means that one half of a shape is the mirror image of the other half.
2. Horizontal Line of Symmetry: â
• A horizontal line divides a shape into two equal halves.
• Example: The letter âHâ has a horizontal line of symmetry.
3. Vertical Line of Symmetry: â
• A vertical line divides a shape into two equal halves.
• Example: The letter âXâ has a vertical line of symmetry.
4. Four Cardinal Points: đ§­
• North, South, East, West.
• Helps us understand direction and symmetry.
5. Examples of Symmetrical Shapes: â¨
• Circle, square, rectangle, heart.
6. Symmetry in Everyday Objects: đĄ
• Butterflies, snowflakes, human faces.

### Examples and Practice

1. Example 1: Horizontal Line of Symmetry
• Shape: Triangle
• Symmetrical Line: Draw a line from the top vertex to the base.
2. Example 2: Vertical Line of Symmetry
• Shape: Square
• Symmetrical Line: Draw a line through the center from top to bottom.
3. Example 3: Identifying Symmetrical Shapes
• Shapes: Heart, Clock, Star
• Task: Identify if they have symmetry and where.

### Conclusion

Understanding symmetry helps us appreciate the beauty and balance in shapes and objects! â¨đ

Class Activity Discussion with answers for grade 4 pupils on the topic of symmetry on plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the 4 cardinal points:

1. Q: What is symmetry in plane shapes?
• A: Symmetry means one half of a shape is the mirror image of the other half.
2. Q: What does a horizontal line of symmetry do?
• A: It divides a shape into two equal halves horizontally.
3. Q: How does a vertical line of symmetry work?
• A: It divides a shape into two equal halves vertically.
4. Q: What are the four cardinal points?
• A: They are north, south, east, and west.
5. Q: How do we identify symmetry in shapes?
• A: By checking if one half mirrors the other half.
6. Q: What is the purpose of a horizontal line of symmetry?
• A: It helps us fold shapes evenly from top to bottom.
7. Q: When do we use vertical lines of symmetry?
• A: To divide shapes equally from left to right.
8. Q: What are some examples of symmetrical objects in nature?
• A: Butterflies, snowflakes, and human faces.
9. Q: How many lines of symmetry does a square have?
• A: It has four lines of symmetry, two horizontal and two vertical.
10. Q: How can we determine if a shape is symmetrical?
• A: By folding it along its lines of symmetry and checking if both halves match.
11. Q: Can you give an example of a shape with horizontal symmetry?
• A: The letter âHâ has horizontal symmetry.
12. Q: What is the purpose of understanding cardinal points in symmetry?
• A: To help us understand direction and position in shapes.
13. Q: Do all shapes have lines of symmetry?
• A: No, not all shapes have lines of symmetry.
14. Q: How can we apply symmetry in everyday life?
• A: By creating balanced designs in art and architecture.
15. Q: Why is it important to understand symmetry in mathematics?
• A: It helps us appreciate balance and beauty in shapes and objects.

Evaluation for grade 4 pupils on the topic of symmetry on plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the 4 cardinal points:

1. A horizontal line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five
2. A vertical line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five
3. The four cardinal points are __________. a) up, down, left, right b) north, south, east, west c) big, small, medium, large d) morning, afternoon, evening, night
4. Symmetry means one half of a shape is the mirror image of the __________ half. a) top b) bottom c) left d) right
5. A shape with a horizontal line of symmetry can be folded __________. a) from left to right b) from top to bottom c) in a zigzag manner d) into a circle
6. A vertical line of symmetry runs __________. a) up and down b) left and right c) diagonally d) in a circle
7. Butterflies and snowflakes often have __________ symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
8. Which shape does NOT have a vertical line of symmetry? a) Square b) Triangle c) Circle d) Rectangle
9. The letter âHâ has a __________ line of symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
10. A square has __________ lines of symmetry. a) one b) two c) three d) four
11. What is the purpose of the four cardinal points in understanding direction and symmetry? a) To count shapes b) To identify colors c) To understand direction d) To draw lines
12. Which of the following shapes is NOT symmetrical? a) Circle b) Square c) Heart d) Triangle
13. The top vertex of a triangle can be connected to the base to create a __________ line of symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
14. Which shape has more than one line of symmetry? a) Triangle b) Rectangle c) Circle d) Star
15. A vertical line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five

#### Step 1: Revision of Previous Topic

• Teacherâs Activity: Recap previous lessons on shapes and directions.
• Learnersâ Activity: Answer questions related to cardinal points and shapes.

#### Step 2: Introduction of the New Topic

• Teacherâs Activity: Introduce the concept of symmetry in plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines.
• Learnersâ Activity: Observe and discuss examples of symmetrical shapes.

#### Step 3: Explaining Horizontal and Vertical Lines of Symmetry

• Teacherâs Activity: Demonstrate how horizontal and vertical lines divide shapes into symmetrical halves.
• Learnersâ Activity: Identify lines of symmetry in given shapes.

#### Step 4: Understanding Cardinal Points in Symmetry

• Teacherâs Activity: Explain the role of cardinal points in understanding symmetry.
• Learnersâ Activity: Discuss how directions relate to symmetry in shapes.

#### Step 5: Examples and Practice

• Teacherâs Activity: Provide examples of symmetrical shapes and ask students to identify lines of symmetry.
• Learnersâ Activity: Practice identifying lines of symmetry in shapes individually and in pairs.

#### Step 6: Application of Symmetry

• Teacherâs Activity: Discuss real-life examples where symmetry is observed.
• Learnersâ Activity: Share their experiences and observations of symmetry in everyday objects.

### Teacherâs Activities

• Facilitate discussions and demonstrations.
• Provide guidance during practice activities.
• Encourage active participation and questions.

### Learnersâ Activities

• Engage in discussions and activities.
• Practice identifying lines of symmetry in shapes.
• Apply knowledge of symmetry to solve problems.

### Assessment

• Observe studentsâ ability to identify lines of symmetry during class activities.
• Evaluate studentsâ responses during discussions and practice exercises.

### Evaluation Questions

1. What is symmetry in plane shapes?
2. How do horizontal lines of symmetry divide shapes?
3. What are the four cardinal points?
4. How do vertical lines of symmetry divide shapes?
5. Can you give an example of a shape with horizontal symmetry?
6. What role do cardinal points play in understanding symmetry?
7. How do we identify lines of symmetry in shapes?
8. Can you name a real-life object with horizontal symmetry?
9. What is the purpose of understanding symmetry in mathematics?
10. Why is it important to recognize lines of symmetry in shapes?

### Conclusion

• Teacherâs Activity: Circulate the classroom to assess studentsâ understanding and provide feedback.
• Learnersâ Activity: Complete worksheets and review key concepts covered in the lesson.

### References

• Lagos State Scheme of Work
• Lagos State Mathematics Textbook for Primary 4

This lesson plan aims to develop studentsâ understanding of symmetry in plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the four cardinal points, fostering critical thinking and problem-solving skills

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