# Symmetry on Plane Shapes Horizontal and Vertical lines 4 Cardinal Points Primary 4 Third Term Lesson NotesÂ Mathematics Week 9

### Detailed Lesson Plan Presentation

**Subject:** Mathematics

**Class:** Primary 4

**Term:** Third Term

**Week:** 9

**Topic:** Symmetry on Plane Shapes: Horizontal and Vertical Lines, 4 Cardinal Points

**Duration:** 45 minutes

**Behavioural Objectives**

- Students will identify horizontal and vertical lines of symmetry in plane shapes.
- Students will understand the concept of symmetry using the four cardinal points.
- Students will apply knowledge of symmetry to solve simple problems.

**Key Words**

- Symmetry, Plane Shapes, Horizontal, Vertical, Cardinal Points.

**Entry Behaviour**

- Recall previous lessons on shapes and directions.

**Learning Resources and Materials**

- Whiteboard and markers
- Flashcards with plane shapes
- Illustrations of horizontal and vertical lines
- Worksheets on symmetry

**Building Background / Connection to Prior Knowledge**

- Review shapes and their characteristics.
- Discuss cardinal points and their relevance to directions.

**Embedded Core Skills**

- Critical thinking
- Problem-solving
- Visual perception

**Learning Materials**

- Lagos State Scheme of Work
- Lagos State Mathematics Textbook for Primary 4

**Instructional Materials**

- Real-life objects with symmetry
- Flashcards and illustrations
- Interactive whiteboard for demonstrations

**Content and Presentation**

### Understanding Symmetry on Plane Shapes

**Symmetry:**đ- Symmetry means that one half of a shape is the mirror image of the other half.

**Horizontal Line of Symmetry:**â- A horizontal line divides a shape into two equal halves.
**Example:**The letter âHâ has a horizontal line of symmetry.

**Vertical Line of Symmetry:**â- A vertical line divides a shape into two equal halves.
**Example:**The letter âXâ has a vertical line of symmetry.

**Four Cardinal Points:**đ§- North, South, East, West.
- Helps us understand direction and symmetry.

**Examples of Symmetrical Shapes:**â¨- Circle, square, rectangle, heart.

**Symmetry in Everyday Objects:**đĄ- Butterflies, snowflakes, human faces.

### Examples and Practice

**Example 1: Horizontal Line of Symmetry****Shape:**Triangle**Symmetrical Line:**Draw a line from the top vertex to the base.

**Example 2: Vertical Line of Symmetry****Shape:**Square**Symmetrical Line:**Draw a line through the center from top to bottom.

**Example 3: Identifying Symmetrical Shapes****Shapes:**Heart, Clock, Star**Task:**Identify if they have symmetry and where.

### Conclusion

Understanding symmetry helps us appreciate the beauty and balance in shapes and objects! â¨đ

Class Activity Discussion with answers for grade 4 pupils on the topic of symmetry on plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the 4 cardinal points:

**Q: What is symmetry in plane shapes?****A:**Symmetry means one half of a shape is the mirror image of the other half.

**Q: What does a horizontal line of symmetry do?****A:**It divides a shape into two equal halves horizontally.

**Q: How does a vertical line of symmetry work?****A:**It divides a shape into two equal halves vertically.

**Q: What are the four cardinal points?****A:**They are north, south, east, and west.

**Q: How do we identify symmetry in shapes?****A:**By checking if one half mirrors the other half.

**Q: What is the purpose of a horizontal line of symmetry?****A:**It helps us fold shapes evenly from top to bottom.

**Q: When do we use vertical lines of symmetry?****A:**To divide shapes equally from left to right.

**Q: What are some examples of symmetrical objects in nature?****A:**Butterflies, snowflakes, and human faces.

**Q: How many lines of symmetry does a square have?****A:**It has four lines of symmetry, two horizontal and two vertical.

**Q: How can we determine if a shape is symmetrical?****A:**By folding it along its lines of symmetry and checking if both halves match.

**Q: Can you give an example of a shape with horizontal symmetry?****A:**The letter âHâ has horizontal symmetry.

**Q: What is the purpose of understanding cardinal points in symmetry?****A:**To help us understand direction and position in shapes.

**Q: Do all shapes have lines of symmetry?****A:**No, not all shapes have lines of symmetry.

**Q: How can we apply symmetry in everyday life?****A:**By creating balanced designs in art and architecture.

**Q: Why is it important to understand symmetry in mathematics?****A:**It helps us appreciate balance and beauty in shapes and objects.

Evaluation for grade 4 pupils on the topic of symmetry on plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the 4 cardinal points:

- A horizontal line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five
- A vertical line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five
- The four cardinal points are __________. a) up, down, left, right b) north, south, east, west c) big, small, medium, large d) morning, afternoon, evening, night
- Symmetry means one half of a shape is the mirror image of the __________ half. a) top b) bottom c) left d) right
- A shape with a horizontal line of symmetry can be folded __________. a) from left to right b) from top to bottom c) in a zigzag manner d) into a circle
- A vertical line of symmetry runs __________. a) up and down b) left and right c) diagonally d) in a circle
- Butterflies and snowflakes often have __________ symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
- Which shape does NOT have a vertical line of symmetry? a) Square b) Triangle c) Circle d) Rectangle
- The letter âHâ has a __________ line of symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
- A square has __________ lines of symmetry. a) one b) two c) three d) four
- What is the purpose of the four cardinal points in understanding direction and symmetry? a) To count shapes b) To identify colors c) To understand direction d) To draw lines
- Which of the following shapes is NOT symmetrical? a) Circle b) Square c) Heart d) Triangle
- The top vertex of a triangle can be connected to the base to create a __________ line of symmetry. a) horizontal b) vertical c) diagonal d) circular
- Which shape has more than one line of symmetry? a) Triangle b) Rectangle c) Circle d) Star
- A vertical line of symmetry divides a shape into __________ halves. a) two b) three c) four d) five

**Step 1: Revision of Previous Topic**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Recap previous lessons on shapes and directions.**Learnersâ Activity:**Answer questions related to cardinal points and shapes.

**Step 2: Introduction of the New Topic**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Introduce the concept of symmetry in plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines.**Learnersâ Activity:**Observe and discuss examples of symmetrical shapes.

**Step 3: Explaining Horizontal and Vertical Lines of Symmetry**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Demonstrate how horizontal and vertical lines divide shapes into symmetrical halves.**Learnersâ Activity:**Identify lines of symmetry in given shapes.

**Step 4: Understanding Cardinal Points in Symmetry**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Explain the role of cardinal points in understanding symmetry.**Learnersâ Activity:**Discuss how directions relate to symmetry in shapes.

**Step 5: Examples and Practice**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Provide examples of symmetrical shapes and ask students to identify lines of symmetry.**Learnersâ Activity:**Practice identifying lines of symmetry in shapes individually and in pairs.

**Step 6: Application of Symmetry**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Discuss real-life examples where symmetry is observed.**Learnersâ Activity:**Share their experiences and observations of symmetry in everyday objects.

**Teacherâs Activities**

- Facilitate discussions and demonstrations.
- Provide guidance during practice activities.
- Encourage active participation and questions.

**Learnersâ Activities**

- Engage in discussions and activities.
- Practice identifying lines of symmetry in shapes.
- Apply knowledge of symmetry to solve problems.

**Assessment**

- Observe studentsâ ability to identify lines of symmetry during class activities.
- Evaluate studentsâ responses during discussions and practice exercises.

**Evaluation Questions**

- What is symmetry in plane shapes?
- How do horizontal lines of symmetry divide shapes?
- What are the four cardinal points?
- How do vertical lines of symmetry divide shapes?
- Can you give an example of a shape with horizontal symmetry?
- What role do cardinal points play in understanding symmetry?
- How do we identify lines of symmetry in shapes?
- Can you name a real-life object with horizontal symmetry?
- What is the purpose of understanding symmetry in mathematics?
- Why is it important to recognize lines of symmetry in shapes?

**Conclusion**

**Teacherâs Activity:**Circulate the classroom to assess studentsâ understanding and provide feedback.**Learnersâ Activity:**Complete worksheets and review key concepts covered in the lesson.

**References**

- Lagos State Scheme of Work
- Lagos State Mathematics Textbook for Primary 4

This lesson plan aims to develop studentsâ understanding of symmetry in plane shapes using horizontal and vertical lines and the four cardinal points, fostering critical thinking and problem-solving skills

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