Basic Science and Technology
Basic 4 / Year 4 / Primary 4
Previous lesson :
The pupils have previous knowledge of soil components that have been taught in the previous lesson
Growing of plants
(A). Gardening tools
Care of the tools
(B). Conditions for growing crops
Behavioural objectives :
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- Mention the conditions that are necessary for the germination of crops
- Mention the various tools that are needed for cultivating crops
- Give examples of gardening tools
Instructional Materials :
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching :
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
Reference Materials :
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Growing of plants deals with all the necessary actions and pre cautions that are needed to take in order to make a very young seedling that is just sprouting up to become a fully grown up plant .
Plants are important to human beings. We grow different kinds of plants such as food crops, cash crops, flowers, medicinal plants and timber plants. By learning how plants grow, and finding out what we can do to help them grow well, we place ourselves in a position to increase the benefits we obtain from plants. There are simple tools that are needed to make these plants grow properly while we are attending to them . These simple tools that we use in the farm are collectively known as Gardening Tools .
What are gardening Tools ?
These are simple hand tools that are used by gardeners or farmers to make their work on the farm easier and faster . These are the examples of such gardening tools and their uses and maintenance
It is made up of galvanized iron which prevents it from rusting. Some are also made of very synthetic rubber. The water watering can is made up of a tank, a handle and a spout. This spout is long with a perforated metal sheet over its mouth which is referred to as the ROSE, but in case of the rubber made watering can the mouth is covered by a rubber.
It is used to apply water to crops like seedlings in a nursery and vegetables. Sometimes it is used in applying liquid fertilizers to crops as well as the watering of cement blocks used for the constructions of structures and buildings.
The cutlass is one of the commonest used farm tools in Nigeria. They come in various shapes and sizes. It is a flat long metal blade with a short wooden or plastic handle with one edge sharp while the other is blunt.
They perform many functions. It is used for the clearing of bushes around your homes, for the felling of big trees. It is used in harvesting crops like sugar cane, maize, cassava, yam and palm nut fruits. It is also used in the planting of melon during the planting season, cutlass can also be used for the transplanting of seedlings, weeding of crops, both in the digging of shallow holes and used in the trimming and pruning of flowers.
Hoe comes in different types, which are used in Nigeria today. There is the West African hoe and the Indian hoe. They both have metal blades with wooden or metal blades.
Hoes are used in tilling the soil, harvesting of crops like cassava, sweet potato and cocoyam, weeding between the rows of crops, digging of drains, making trenches and foundation of farm houses, and the making of ridges and mounds.
The hoes all over the world perform the same function but we are going to differentiate them the West African hoe is made of short curve handle while the Indian hoe has a long handle.
The West African hoe has a round metal blade while the Indian hoe has a rectangular metal blade. The blade (metal) is attached to the handle with a prong while that of the Indian hoe is attached to the handle with a hoop.
The spade is made up of a long rectangular flat blade which is attached to a fairly long cylindrical handle that widens at the posterior end to form a triangular block with a D-shaped whole for hand when used.
Spade is used for different proposes. It can be used for digging of holes and trenches around us, for leveling the ground, for making seedbeds, ridges, mounds and heaps, transplanting of seedlings like palm oil seedlings, turning the soil and the mixing of manures, light weeding in the farm and at home, mixing of cement and concrete for farm and home structures and the digging of foundations when constructing farm and home buildings.
The rake is a farm tool which consists of a very long wooden handle with a strong metal head attached to its base. The metal head has several prongs which are very important to enable the rake perform its functions.
Uses of the Rake
The rake is used by farmers in Nigeria to perform the following functions:
- To spread the soil evenly after hoeing.
- To remove stones and weeds from seed-beds.
- It is used to cover vegetable seeds after broadcasting
- The rake is used to break soil lumps into smaller particles
The wheelbarrow is a common farm tool which is seen almost every day in major cities of Nigeria. It is a large metal container with a wheel at the front, two handles at the rear and two legs under the base also at the rear. It is pushed by lifting the two handles slightly upward.
Uses of the Wheelbarrow
The major use of the wheelbarrow as a farm tool is to carry and transport farm inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and farm outputs such as harvested crops, slaughtered animals and other load from the farm to the market or other places. It is also used to transplant seedlings
Conditions for growing crops
These are the conditions that are necessary for the germination of plant . These condition are
Good seed : If a dead seed is planted , such seed may not sprout out to become a plant . Hence there is a need to take into consideration that only the best and viable seeds are planted so that such seeds will germinate .
Water : Water is needed for the germination of plant as water supplies the plants with the necessary nutrients for survival
Air : Air is needed by all living things things for continued survival. Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere for animal and man use .
Nutrients : Mineral nutrients like Phosphorus is needed by plant for flower and root formation
Sunlight : Every green plant needs sunlight in order to make their own food in the presence of sunlight . The process in which green plant manufactures its food in the presence of sunlight is known as Photosynthesis
Good soil : The soil is the uppermost part of the earth surface that supports both plant growth and animal survival. Soil provides the opportunity for growing plants to be firmly fixed in the soil while supplying the plants with all the necessary nutrients
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.
- Mention four conditions that are necessary for plant growth
- Mention four gardening tools
- Mention two uses of a cutlass
- Mention two uses of hoe
- Define soil .
- What is photosynthesis
- Explain four uses of soil .
Prepare for the next lesson by reading about growing of plants
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