Waste and Waste Disposal Basic Science Primary 5 First Term Lesson Notes Week 8

Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

First Term


Week 10

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of   types of waste

Topic :


Waste Disposal – disposing refuse or sewage
Effects of Improper Waste Disposal




Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Explain the meaning of waste disposal
  • Say various alternative ways of waste disposal
  • Mention the best method of waste disposal
  • List out the possible effects of not properly disposing our waste


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Waste Paper Basket

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

What is waste disposal  ?

Wasted disposal is the process of getting rid of anything that is no longer needed by our body or in the environment


It is a method of environmental sanitation that involves  the removal of unwanted waste like sewage and refuse from our environment for the purpose of keeping our environment clean, neat and safe from germs .


What are the methods of waste disposal ?
These are the methods of disposing liquid waste like sewage :

(i) Pit latrine

(ii) Water closet


These two systems should be linked to:

(i) a cesspool or

(ij) a septic tank

Cesspool: This is a covered temporary underground container that is used for the
collection of sewage or liquid waste .

Septic tank: This is an underground tank in which sewage is collected and
decomposed by bacteria before being drained.

Pail or Bucket system: This method has been discouraged and is no longer
popular because it is considered unsafe for human health.

Refuse Disposal:
The following methods can be used:

(i) Incineration,

(ii) composting,

(iii) land filling.

Dustbin: This is first used to collect the refuse before the proper disposal.



Effects of Improper Waste Disposal 

  • Water will become contaminated .
  • Land pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Climate change
  • Air pollution
  • Spread of diseases
  • Danger to marine life or aquatic creatures.



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

(a) Refuse Disposal:

  1. Landfill: Refuse is collected and disposed of in designated landfill sites.
  2. Incineration: Burning of refuse at high temperatures to reduce its volume and minimize environmental impact.
  3. Recycling: Separating and reusing recyclable materials like paper, plastic, and glass.
  4. Composting: Organic waste is decomposed into nutrient-rich compost for soil improvement.
  5. Waste-to-Energy: Converting non-recyclable waste into energy through incineration or other technologies.

(b) Sewage Disposal:

  1. Sewage Treatment Plants: Wastewater is treated in facilities to remove contaminants and pollutants before discharge.
  2. Septic Tanks: On-site sewage treatment for individual homes, separating solids and liquids.
  3. Composting Toilets: Human waste is treated and converted into compost in specially designed toilets.
  4. Anaerobic Digestion: Biological treatment of sewage in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas and reduce solids.
  5. Ocean Outfall: In some coastal areas, treated sewage is safely discharged into the ocean.

Please note that the choice of method depends on factors like location, available infrastructure, and environmental regulations.

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  1. What is waste  disposal
  2. Mention four effects of improper waste disposal
  3. The process of reducing the volume of waste by burning it at high temperatures is known as _______. (a) Landfilling (b) Recycling (c) Incineration (d) Composting
  4. A common method of disposing of non-recyclable waste by converting it into energy is _______. (a) Recycling (b) Composting (c) Incineration (d) Landfilling
  5. Which method involves the decomposition of organic waste into nutrient-rich compost? (a) Incineration (b) Recycling (c) Composting (d) Landfilling
  6. The separation and reuse of materials like paper, plastic, and glass is known as _______. (a) Incineration (b) Recycling (c) Landfilling (d) Composting
  7. On-site sewage treatment for individual homes is often done through _______. (a) Landfilling (b) Recycling (c) Septic tanks (d) Composting
  8. Which method involves the safe discharge of treated sewage into the ocean in coastal areas? (a) Sewage treatment plants (b) Composting toilets (c) Landfilling (d) Ocean outfall
  9. _______ is the process of treating sewage in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas. (a) Anaerobic digestion (b) Recycling (c) Incineration (d) Landfilling
  10. Individual homes can treat sewage with _______. (a) Landfilling (b) Recycling (c) Septic tanks (d) Composting toilets
  11. Wastewater is treated in _______ to remove contaminants and pollutants before discharge. (a) Landfill sites (b) Recycling centers (c) Sewage treatment plants (d) Composting facilities
  12. Which method involves burning refuse at high temperatures to minimize its environmental impact? (a) Landfilling (b) Recycling (c) Incineration (d) Composting
  13. A method that involves converting human waste into compost in specially designed toilets is _______. (a) Incineration (b) Recycling (c) Composting toilets (d) Landfilling
  14. What method reduces the volume of waste by burying it in designated sites? (a) Recycling (b) Composting (c) Incineration (d) Landfilling
  15. _______ is the process of converting non-recyclable waste into energy. (a) Recycling (b) Composting (c) Incineration (d) Waste-to-energy
  16. What is the method of sewage disposal that involves treating waste with bacteria in the absence of oxygen? (a) Anaerobic digestion (b) Recycling (c) Incineration (d) Landfilling
  17. Which method of waste disposal separates solids and liquids in an on-site system for homes? (a) Landfilling (b) Recycling (c) Septic tanks (d) Composting toilets



Prepare for the next lesson by reading about waste and waste recycling