Changes Caused By Human Activities Pollution

Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

First Term


Week 1

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of various topics that have been taught on Basic Science and Technology when they were in Primary 4

Topic :

Changes Caused By Human Activities (Pollution)

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define pollution and list some agents of pollution.
  • List common causes of pollution
  • Discuss the role of human activities in the degradation of the environment
  • Identify the causes of pollution on land, water, and air
  • state the effects of pollution
  • Suggest ways of reducing pollution of the environment


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

What is the meaning of Pollution ?

To pollute mean to defile , to contaminate, to adulterate or make unfit for both animal and  human use . When you see a dead decaying rat at the corner of mum”s kitchen , the dead rat is a pollutant because it will bring forth smell that is not appealing to everybody in the house .


What are Pollutants : Pollutants are objects or things that cause pollution or defilement .


What are the types of Pollution ? 

Water Pollution : This occurs when water is made unfit or unsafe for plant , animal or human use . Human activities such as sewage disposal or oil spillage are all examples of water pollutants . These activities make water to become unsafe or toxic to aquatic creatures that are living in the water . Examples of water pollutants are oil spillage , fertilizer that are washed into the sea during raining periods, herbicides . sewage , petroleum spillage etc



Land Pollution : Land pollution arises when land is littered with rubbish or refuse thereby making land unsafe or unfit for human activities. Piles of refuse are breeding grounds for germs that spread infectious deadly diseases  . Examples or land pollutants are refuse . broken bottles , dead unburied animals . human feaces . plastic bottles . polythene bags nylon etc .


Air Pollution : Air pollution occurs when the atmosphere is filled with deadly or poisonous air that makes lives unbearable for plants and animals . Examples of air pollutants are smoke from cigarettes’ , smoke from burning refuse , carbon dioxide emission from generator sets , dust , etc



Common causes of pollution

The following are some of the causes of pollution

  • Natural occurrence like Death
  • Natural activities and reaction like Volcanic eruption
  • Human activities like Transportation
  • Human activities like bush burning
  • industrial waste
  • Social activities like wedding parties of birthday parties


The roles of human activities in the degradation of the environment

Human activities and roles in the degradation on the environment has been in existence since time immemorial . Various human activities like deforestation , overpopulation, , burning fossil fuels, and deforestation have all negatively  impacted our eco system and habitat.  Changes like these have triggered climate change, soil erosion, poor air quality, and undrinkable water. These negative impacts can affect human behavior and can prompt mass migrations or battles over clean water if they are not properly controlled .


Effects of pollution 

  • The normal eco system of living things is altered
  • food chain of living organisms is disrupted
  • It may lead to death
  • infectious  diseases are easily spread
  • Respiratory disease like cough may arise
  • The ozone layer is depleted
  • Global warming
  • Acid rain
  • Sea creatures may die
  • birds will die
  • It is an eye sore , most especially refuse dumped along the road on major roads


Suggested ways of reducing pollution in our  environment

  • Government should make regulation in respect of proper disposal of waste, refuse of sewage
  • Vehicle Inspector Officers should wake up to their duties and impound any vehicle that is not road worthy most especially the ones that emit serious dangerous smoke when moving on the road
  • Industries and large factories should have waste and sewage treatment facilities
  • Government should please try as much as possible to provide light (electricity) (power) most especially at night so that the number of people that will put on their generating set will reduce and this will consequently reduce noise and air pollution at night
  • People that organize social gathering by making use of street by setting up canopies on street should be make to clean up the environment when the party is over .
  • Smoking in public places like schools , buses or motor parks should not be encourage .
  • Fertilizer and herbicides should applied in moderate quantity .
  • Open defecation should be frown at and discouraged
  • LAWMA …….. Lagos State Waste Management Authority ….. Thanks for giving us a cleaner Lagos.. More awareness , orientation and enlightenment is needed . Keep up the good job .


The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  • What is pollution
  • Mention three types of pollution
  • Mention two water pollutants
  • Mention two air pollutants
  • Mention two land pollutants
  • Write out four effects of pollution
  • Suggest four ways of reducing pollution




Prepare for the next lesson by reading about AIR POLLUTION



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