Family Health Refuse and Sewage

Family Health: Refuse and Sewage




Term : First Term

Week: Week 3

Class : JSS 1

Previous lesson : The pupils have previous knowledge of  

Family Health: Sanitation

Topic :

Family Health: Refuse and Sewage


  1. Meaning of Refuse and Sewage
  2. Methods of Refuse Disposal
  3. Cleaning Tools and Agents

Behavioural objectives :

By the end of the lesson, the learners will  be able to

  • Say the Meaning of refuse
  • Explain the meaning of sewage
  • Explain what you understand by refuse and sewage.
  • State 2 differences between refuse and sewage.
  • List 2 examples each of refuse and sewage.


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks






Meaning of Refuse and Sewage

Refuse is  solid waste whether dry or wet which could cause land pollution e.g. nylon, paper, plastic, broken bottles, scraps, etc. Refuse wastes materials could be divided into 2 namely: biodegradable and non-biodegradable.

Biodegradable materials are materials that can decompose or decay e.g. banana peels, dead leaves, dead animals, etc.

Non-biodegradable things are materials that cannot be decomposed or decay e.g. metals, plastics, broken bottles, etc.

Sewage is a liquid waste from the environment e.g. faeces, urine, wasted water from kitchens, bathrooms, etc.

refuse and sewage


Methods of Refuse Disposal

Refuse disposal methods include:

  1. Burning of the refuse.
  2. Burying to facilitate decomposition or decay.
  3. Recycling of refuse (It is a process whereby refuse is sorted out and converted to the original materials and use again.)
  4. Proper use of waste bins
  5. Use of incinerator ( a container where solid wastes are burnt)

Sewage disposal methods include:

  1. Pit latrine: A deep pit dug in the ground use as a means of disposing faeces.
  2. Bucket latrine: This is the use of mobile container for faeces and urine e.g. potty
  3. Water closet system (WC): The water closet is connected to a septic tank that receives the sewage once it is flushed.


Cleaning Tools and Agents

These are materials and chemicals used to keep the home and surrounding clean.

Cleaning tools are broom, mop, brush, duster, sponge, tissue paper, shovel, cutlass, rake etc. while cleaning agents are scouring powder, soap, detergents, water etc.




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher corrects the pupils when and where the needs arise .



  1. Explain what you understand by refuse and sewage.
  2. State 2 differences between refuse and sewage.
  3. List 2 examples each of refuse and sewage.


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



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