Changes around Us. Meaning and Causes of Erosion Basic Science Primary 5 First Term Week 3

Subject : 

Basic Science

Term :

First Term


Week 3

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of Land Pollution

Topic :

Meaning of Erosion . Changes Around Us. Causes of Erosion


Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define define erosion
  • mention types of erosion
  • say the causes of erosion
  • mention ways by which erosion can be controlled .

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Some soil sample in Bucket.
  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Pictures or diagrams depicting erosion processes
  • Samples of soil, rocks, and sand
  • A clear container with water
  • Chart paper and colored markers
  • Erosion fact sheets or handouts



Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks

Embedded Core Skills:

  • Scientific Inquiry
  • Observation and Analysis
  • Critical Thinking
  • Problem Solving
  • Communication Skills

Content :

What is Erosion  ?

Erosion is the removal or washing away of soil nutrients by water , wind or human activities . These factors that are responsible for washing away soil nutrients are known as agents of Erosion.


What are the types of Erosion ?

Rill Erosion : This occurs when rapid movement of water or strong wind removes the soil cover surface . This is done when a channel is form by the frequent movement of water through its channel thereby creation loss of soil nutrients


Gulley Erosion : This type of erosion is caused by a very deep violent movement of water which causes deep percolation of water . Gulley erosion causes deep holes in the soil .


Hill and Sheet Erosion : High hills are susceptible to hill and sheet erosion as water that moves rapidly downwards the slope of the hill washes away soil nutrients .


Wind Erosion : This is easily noticed in the arid region when strong wing blows away light upmost part of the soil particles and nutrients because of lack of rain or green vegetation .



What are the causes of Erosion ? 

  • Absence or inadequate rainfall
  • too much rainfall
  • human activities like deforestation
  •  rough or violent movement of water
  • over grazing
  • poorly constructed water dams, channels or irrigation


What are the effects of Erosion ?

  • Soil nutrients are lost and harvest may not be bountiful
  • Soil may become unfertile and  less fruitful
  • Erosion makes land surface unsafe and unmotorable for drivers
  • Deep gulley make cause landslide


Ways by which erosion can be controlled 

  • Planting of cover crops
  • Making or slopes , contours or ridges
  • Planting of tress
  • Avoid over grazing
  • Avoid bush burning
  • Encourage afforestation




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

Introduction (5 minutes):

  • Begin by asking students if they’ve ever noticed changes in the environment around them.
  • Introduce the topic of erosion and explain that erosion is a natural process that causes changes to the Earth’s surface.

Step 3:

Main Content (30 minutes):

Teacher’s Activities:

  1. Defining Erosion (10 minutes):
    • Write the word “erosion” on the whiteboard.
    • Discuss and define erosion as the gradual wearing away or removal of soil, rocks, and land surfaces due to natural forces like wind, water, and ice.
    • Show pictures or diagrams depicting erosion processes
  2. Causes of Erosion (10 minutes):
    • Discuss the main causes of erosion: rainfall, running water, wind, and human activities like deforestation.
    • Use samples of soil, rocks, and sand to demonstrate how different materials erode at varying rates.
    • Conduct a simple experiment by pouring water on soil in a clear container to show how water erosion occurs.
  3. Effects of Erosion (10 minutes):
    • Discuss the effects of erosion on the environment, such as the formation of valleys, riverbanks, and canyons.
    • Explain how erosion can lead to soil degradation and loss of fertile land.
    • Share examples of real-world erosion problems.


Learners’ Activities:

  1. Students will actively engage in discussions, sharing their observations and thoughts on erosion.
  2. They will participate in the water erosion experiment, making observations and recording their findings.
  3. Students will ask questions to clarify their understanding of the causes and effects of erosion.

Practice (10 minutes):


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  • What is erosion
  • Mention two types of erosion
  • Mention two agents of erosion
  • Mention two effects of erosion
  • Mention two ways of solving the problem of erosion





1. Erosion is the gradual _______ of soil, rocks, and land surfaces.
a) growth
b) wearing away
c) painting
d) building

2. Erosion is caused by natural forces like _______ and wind.
a) sun
b) rain
c) snow
d) music

3. _______ is one of the main causes of erosion, as it washes away soil.
a) Rainfall
b) Laughter
c) Homework
d) Flowers

4. Wind can carry away tiny pieces of _______.
a) chocolate
b) paper
c) sand
d) books

5. Erosion can create features like _______ and riverbanks.
a) castles
b) valleys
c) rainbows
d) bicycles

6. Running water from _______ can cause erosion.
a) showers
b) rain
c) ice cream
d) music

7. Human activities like _______ can also lead to erosion.
a) planting trees
b) building dams
c) playing soccer
d) eating apples

8. Erosion can result in the loss of _______ land.
a) fertile
b) sandy
c) yellow
d) small

9. Erosion can change the _______ of the Earth’s surface.
a) color
b) shape
c) smell
d) taste

10. _______ is when soil, rocks, and land surfaces are gradually worn away.
a) Construction
b) Erosion
c) Celebration
d) Invention

11. Erosion is mainly caused by _______ and wind.
a) sunshine
b) music
c) rain
d) snowflakes

12. Wind can carry away small pieces of soil, creating _______.
a) mountains
b) sand dunes
c) clouds
d) forests

13. Erosion can lead to the formation of _______ in the landscape.
a) rivers
b) candy
c) buildings
d) toys

14. Human activities like deforestation can _______ erosion.
a) prevent
b) increase
c) stop
d) create

15. Erosion can cause changes to the Earth’s surface that we can _______.
a) taste
b) smell
c) see
d) hear




Prepare for the next lesson by reading about environment quality


Practice (10 minutes):

  • Distribute erosion fact sheets or handouts with erosion-related questions and problems.
  • Allow students to work individually or in pairs to answer questions and solve problems related to erosion.

Assessment (5 minutes):

  • Collect and review the completed fact sheets to assess individual comprehension.
  • Ask a few students to share their answers and solutions with the class to promote discussion

Conclusion (5 minutes):

  • Summarize the key points discussed in the lesson.
  • Emphasize the importance of understanding erosion in preserving the environment.
  • Encourage students to observe erosion in their surroundings and report back to the class.

Homework (5 minutes):

  • Assign homework, which could include documenting any observations of erosion in their neighborhood or researching ways to prevent erosion
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