Water Pollution. Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions

Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

First Term


Week 3

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of  air pollution causes and effects 

Topic :

Water Pollution

Causes of water Pollution

Effects of water Pollution

Prevention or Possible solution to water pollution

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define pollution water pollution
  • List common   causes of water pollution .
  • Say the effects of water pollution .
  • Explain the possible solution to water pollution


Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Water in a pail or bucket

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

What is the meaning of Pollution ?

To pollute mean to defile , to contaminate, to adulterate or make unfit for both animal and  human use . When you spill oil on water, the oil will float on the water because oil is lighter than water.


What are water pollutants : Water pollutants are objects or things that cause pollution or defilement to water and make water unusable or unfit or unsafe for plant and animals


Examples of water pollutants are 

  • Oil
  • Salt
  • Clay
  • Sewage
  • Erosion
  • Industrial waste
  • Leakages from pipes
  • Soap


What are the Harmful effects of  Water Pollution  ? 

  • Water pollutants make water to become hard water
  • Polluted water is not good for cooking
  • Toxic chemicals in polluted water kill creatures in the sea or ocean.
  • Polluted water may cause vomiting or stomach upset when it is drunk or used for cooking


The possible solutions to water pollution 

  • Water for domestic uses must be treated before use.
  • Distillation must be used if the option is available.
  • Sewage must be disposed off properly.
  • Leakages in oil pipes must be fixed.


The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



  • What is pollution
  • Mention is water pollution
  • Mention two water  pollutants
  • Mention effects  water pollutants
  • Mention two ways of solving water pollution




Prepare for the next lesson by reading about land pollution



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