Guide and Awareness That Are Needed By Every User Of Goods And Services

Table of Contents


Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 8



Consumer Protection and Awareness


Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to



  • mention Consumer Protection and Awareness
  • Define who a consumer is.
  • Explain the meaning of consumer rights
  • Say the needs to protect consumers rights



Instructional Materials 

  • Textbook
  • Pictures
  • Online resources
  • Flashcards


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization



Topic: Consumer Protection and Awareness


Meaning of Consumer Protection

Importance of Consumer Protection

The rights of a consumer

The organs and agencies of Consumer Protection

A. Meaning of Consumer Protection

The protection of buyers of goods and services against low quality or dangerous products and advertisements that deceive people.

The goal of consumer protection laws is to place consumers, who are average citizens engaging in business deals such as buying goods or borrowing money, on an even par with companies or citizens who regularly engage in business. Historically, consumer transactions—purchases of goods or services for personal, family, or household use—were presumed fair because it was assumed that buyers and sellers bargained from equal positions.

Starting in the 1960s, legislatures began to respond to complaints by consumer advocates that consumers were inherently disadvantaged, particularly when bargaining with large corporations and industries. Several types of agencies and statutes, both state and federal, now work to protect consumers.

B. Importance of Consumer Protection

Businessmen cannot survive for a long time by ignoring the interest of consumer. They have to give due importance to consumer if they want to prosper in competitive market. Consumer protection provides following benefits to businessmen:

1. Long Term Interest of Business:

After the liberalization and globalisation the level of competition has increased so much that not only internal but business has to face international competition. In the race of competition the businessmen can win and capture a big share in the market only when they are able to satisfy its customers by designing the products keeping in mind the requirements of customers.

The businessmen who ignore the interest and satisfaction of customers lose their goodwill and clients. So it is in interest of business itself to keep its customers satisfied.

2. Businessman Uses Society’s Resources:

Businessmen use the resources of society. They earn profit by supplying goods and services to the members of society so it must do something for society. Businessmen are merely trustee of resources; they must use these resources for the benefits of consumers.

3. Social Responsibilities:

A businessman has social obligations towards various groups and customer is one of the important groups. It is responsibility of businessmen to provide quality goods at reasonable price. Consumer protection guides businessmen to provide social responsibilities.

4. Moral/Ethical Justification:

Traditionally ethics was part of profession only, but today ethics is playing very important role in business also. The ethics or a moral value practiced by the businessmen adds glory to businessmen. In today’s environment business without ethical value is not more than a criminal activity and no civil society can tolerate and allow the existence of unethical business.

5. Government Intervention:

If businessmen want to avoid intervention of government then they should not involve in unfair trade practices. Government intervention may spoil the image of business. Businessmen should voluntarily involve in the activities which protect the interest of consumer.

6. Consumer is the Purpose of Business:

The basic purpose of business is to create more and more customers and retain them and businessmen can create more customers only by satisfying the customers and protecting the interest of consumer. The customer is the foundation of business.

C. The Rights of the Consumer

Generally accepted basic consumer rights are

(1) Right to safety: protection from hazardous goods.

(2) Right to be informed: availability of information required for weighing alternatives, and protection from false and misleading claims in advertising and labeling practices.

(3) Right to choose: availability of competing goods and services that offer alternatives in terms of price, quality, service.

(4) Right to be heard: assurance that government will take full cognizance of the concerns of consumers, and will act with sympathy and dispatch through statutes and simple and expeditious administrative procedures.

D. The organs and agencies of Consumer Protection

The following agencies are responsible for consumer protection

⦁    Price Control Board: Price control board was established for the federation for the purpose of controlling inflation by fixing the retail prices of certain essential commodities.The price control board also ensures that the provision of the price control decree is practiced.

Functions of the price control board

1.    To fix prices for some essential goods

2.    To protect low income earners

3.    To prevent hoarding of goods by the sellers

4.    To control inflation

⦁    Environmental Protection Agency:

The basis of environmental policy in Nigeria is contained in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Section 20 of the Constitution empowers the state to protect and improve the environment; and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wildlife of Nigeria.

Objectives of the Environmental Protection Agency

1.    To maintain clean sewage system

2.    To ensure disposal of refuse

3.    To ensure the treatment of polluted water

4.    To ensure that the companies who caused pollution compensated the people in the environment.

Rent Tribunals: Rent tribunals are also set up by the government to regulate any matter relating to rent of shops, landed space, houses. They are established so as to curb the excesses of lands and agents by controlling rent charges.

Functions of Rent Tribunals

1.    To curtail the excesses of the agents and landlords

2.    To control rent charges by landlords

3.    To fix rent for certain categories of houses, considering the location

4.    To ensure compliance with the rent edict by prosecuting offenders


Food and Drug Department of Ministry of Health: The duty of this organization is handled by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration  and Control (NAFDAC) is charged with the administering the provision of the food and drug decree.

Functions of Food and Drug Department of Ministry of Health

1.    It helps to control and monitors the sale of canned food

2.    The department ensures that drugs to be sold are tested for safety purpose

3.    It regulates and monitors advertisements in media

4.    It ensures that the drugs to be sold are tested for safety purpose

⦁    Ministry of trade and Industry:

The ministry of trade and industry in collaboration with other organs administer government laws and regulations relating to trade and industry in a country.


Functions of the ministry of trade and industry

1.    It monitors the setting up of business

2.    It enforces laws on trade and industry

3.    The ministry ensures compliance with various act.

4.    The ministry ensures that most of goods imported or exported are regulated

⦁      Consumer Association: Consumer association are formed by consumers to protect  their rights and interests. They study the prices and the quality of goods sold in their locality and make recommendations to their members.

Objectives of forming consumer association

1.    To promote and protect the interest of consumers

2.    To act as a guide against deceptive and misleading advertisement

3.    To act as a check against exploitation of consumers by the manufacturers

4.    To educate the consumers about their rights

5.    To pressurize the producers to produce high quality goods

6.    To check arbitrary increases in  prices of goods


Manufacturers Association: Manufacturers association is an association of producers who come together to ensure that the quality of goods produced is high and that the members comply with their professional ethics. E.g

Manufacturer Association of Nigeria (MAN)

Functions of the Manufacturers Association

1.    They protect the interest of their members

2.    They ensure high quality goods and services

3.    They serve as a link between members and the Government

4.    They ensure uniformity in prices of goods

5.    They ensure members abide with their professional ethics

NCC – Nigerian Communications Commission

The Nigerian Communications Commission is the independent National Regulatory Authority for the telecommunications industry in Nigeria. The Commission is responsible for creating an enabling environment for competition among operators in the industry as well as ensuring the provision of qualitative and efficient telecommunications services throughout the country.

Functions of NCC

1. The facilitation of investments in and entry into the Nigerian market for provision and supply of communications services, equipment and facilities.

2. The protection and promotion of the interests of consumers against unfair practices including but not limited to matters relating to tariffs and charges for and the availability and quality of communications services, equipment and facilities.

3. Ensuring that licensees implement and operate at all times the most efficient and accurate billing system.

4. The promotion of fair competition in the communications industry and protection of communications services and facilities providers from misuse of market power or anti-competitive and unfair practices by other service or facilities providers or equipment suppliers.

5. Granting and renewing communications licences whether or not the licences themselves provide for renewal in accordance with the provisions of this Act and monitoring and enforcing compliance with licence terms and conditions by licensees.


6. Proposing and effecting amendments to licence conditions in accordance with the objectives and provisions of this Act.

7. Fixing and collecting fees for grant of communications licences and other regulatory services provided by the Commission.

8. The development and monitoring of performance standards and indices relating to the quality of telephone and other communications services and facilities supplied to consumers in Nigeria having regard to the best international performance indicators.

SON – Standard Organization of Nigeria

What is the Standard Organisation of Nigeria? The Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) is the apex body in charge of standardization in Nigeria. Standardization is the process of developing and implementing of technical standards based on the agreement of different entities that include governments, standard organisations, firms, interest groups, and users. They are in charge of all the products, processes and scientific study of measurement standards in Nigeria.


The Standard Organisation of Nigeria was created in 1971 by the Enabling Act No. 56 of 1971. The Acts has had several amendments since then. The Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) currently operates under the SON Act Number 14, 2015. The last amendment was made to give more power to the organisation to penalize offenders and also add more functions to the work of the organisation. The SON is headed by the Standards Council of Nigeria. The daily management and administration of the body are carried out by the Director-General of SON.


Functions of SON:

1. Establishing and compiling Industrial standards in Nigeria.

2. Compiling an inventory of products that require standardization.

3. To provide reference standards for verification and calibration of measurements, and equipment used for measuring in Nigeria.

4. To carry out inspections of the quality of products and materials, and facilities used in production. Also, to institute a quality assurance system which includes the certifying of products, laboratories, and factories.

5. To carry tests and make sure every product and service comply with the standards approved by the council.

6. They also develop the methods for testing of equipment, materials, and supplies including the ones purchased for the government use.

7. Compilation and publishing of general scientific data.

8. Work with other national and international bodies related to standardization.


Topic: Living a Modest Life


  1. Meaning of Modesty
  2. Attributes of Modesty
  3. Effects of living a modest life

A. Meaning of Modesty

Modesty comes from the Latin modestus, which literally translates as “keeping due measure.” Knowing the correct measure of yourself is modesty, and when someone praises you too much, your modesty might kick in and make you want to tell them to be quiet. Modesty also means you keep things decent and not too outrageous, like wearing clothes that hide your skin, or painting your walls beige instead of covering them with glow-in-the-dark diamond wallpaper.

B. Attributes of Modesty

1. A modest attitude exhibits humility

2. Modest speech is appropriate for anyone to hear

3. Modest behavior avoids any extremes

4. Modest grooming will not draw attention to self

5. Modest attire will not be extreme, form fitting or revealing


C. Effects of living a modest life

1. Eliminating excess possessions leads to a declutter home.

2. Eliminating outside obligations leads to a calmer schedule and more family time.

3. Eliminating poor eating habits leads to healthier living.

4. Eliminating mindless spending leads to escaping debt and building a better financial future.

5. Using a smaller wardrobe more effectively –> leads to making fewer purchases

6. Making fewer purchases –> leads to saving more of your money

7. Saving more of your money –> leads to getting out of debt

8. Getting out of debt –> leads to less financial stress


9. Less financial stress –> leads to greater personal freedom

10. Greater personal freedom –> leads to more time to pursue your dreams

11. Time to pursue your dreams –> leads to increased happiness and personal fulfillment.




Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.






  1. Mention four consumer rights
  2. Who is a consumer?
  3. Explain the meaning of consumer rights
  4. Say four needs to protect consumers rights
  5. Write out four reasons duties of SON
  6. What is the full meaning of SON
  7. What is a price control
  8. What is the meaning of Modesty
  9. Write out four attributes of Modesty
  10. List four effects of living a modest life
  11. What is the full meaning of NCC
  12. Mention four functions of Nigerian Communications Commission



The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections