Order of Adjectives




First Term


Week 6



Previous lesson: Pupils have previous knowledge of

Expressing Intension and Permission (using intend, aim + to infinitive; can, could, may, might, mind

that was taught in their previous lesson


Speech Work Consonants Contrasts/s – z/;/d – ð/; /ʃ – s/; /f – v/; (NOSEC, page 58)

Structure: Order of Adjectives.

Reading Comprehension: Reading for Critical

Evaluation ‘Real Facts and Imagined facts’(NOSEC, pages 65 – 67);

English Structure: Direct and Indirect Speech (NOSEC, pages 24 – 26);

Composition: A Semi-Formal Letter (Guided writing) Write to your class teacher on your absence from school;

Literature: Revising Poetry (use recommended   poem).


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation

Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks




Speech Work Consonants Contrasts /s – z/;/d – ð/; /ʃ – s/; /f – v/; (NOSEC, page 58)

/s/                           /z//f/              /v/

Fleece                    Fleas tough, very

Advice                   Advise fall, nephew

Fierce                    Fears phone of

Place                     Plays full          vote

Loose                   lose ferry        very

hence               hen          rough     vow


/d/             /ð/ /∫/                  /s/

dam, the chalet            fleece

do,  father chateau, advice

cord mother, charade, loose

dad         brother             machine hence

EVALUATION: Below are ten words. Each of them contains either /s/ or /z/. Put the words that contain /s/ under /s/ and those that contain /z/ under /z/.

ASSIGNMENT: indicate the consonants at the final position in each of the following words: legs, peace, sits, goes, nose.

Structure (1) (Order of Adjectives)

This is the arrangement of adjectives as the qualify a noun.


Order of Adjectives


Most native English speakers use a common order when listing adjectives. The order is:


Opinion – Size – Age – Shape – Colour – Origin – Material – Type – Qualifier


Here are some examples of this order in action:


I have an old, rusty, red bicycle.

This is a beautiful, ancient, Italian vase.


Of course, there are always exceptions to the rule. For example, you might use a different order when listing ingredients for a recipe:


1 cup sugar

1/2 teaspoon salt

2 tablespoons cornstarch

4 cups raspberries


In this case, the order is:


Material – Qualifier – Opinion – Type


The important thing to remember is that the order of adjectives should be consistent throughout a sentence. You can’t mix and match different orders. For example, you couldn’t say “I have an old, beautiful, rusty, red bicycle.” The correct order would be “I have an old, rusty, red, beautiful bicycle.”


Another thing to keep in mind is that some adjectives can go in more than one position. For example, the adjective “fresh” can be an opinion (“This bread is fresh”), a type (“I bought fresh bread at the bakery”), or a qualifier (“I added fresh garlic to the soup”).


When in doubt, try using this order:


Opinion – Size – Age – Shape – Colour – Origin – Material – Type – Qualifier


With practice, you’ll be able to list adjectives like a native English speaker in no time!

Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the adjective.


  • Determiner—————————A, An, Some, I met etc.
  • Number/Quantity——————– Two, four, ten etc
  • Value, Quality/ opinion ————Good, delicious, lovely, charming etc
  • Size————————————-Big, small, huge, tiny etc.
  • Age/Temperature——————-Old, young, hot, cold.
  • Shape———————————Round, square, rectangular.
  • Colour——————————–Red, blue, black.
  • Origin——————————–Swedish, Japanese, American, Nigerian, local
  • Material—————————–plastic, wooden, silver, golden,
  • Noun——————————–car, table, cup, roof etc.

NOTE: All the adjectives may not be used at the same time. Whichever one is selected, the arrangement above will guide you how to arrange them, which one comes before the other?

Eg. A lovely old red post box.

Some small round plastic table.

Some charming small silver ornaments.



1. Which of the following is the correct order of adjectives?

A. large, expensive, beautiful

B. beautiful, expensive, large

2. Which of the following is the correct order of adjectives?

A. very cold, quite big, rather small

B. very big, quite small, rather cold

Reading for Critical Evaluation ‘Real Facts and Imagined facts’  (NOSEC, pages 65 – 67)

As you already know, sometimes a writer’s purpose is to give information…. Is this addition justified by the undoubted facts given by historian (A)?

EVALUATION: Attempt questions a-f on page 67 of NOSEC book 3.




English Structure: Direct and Indirect Speech (NOSEC, pages 24 – 26);

Direct Speech.

Direct speech is the statement as it comes out from the speaker’s mouth without addition or subtraction.

Indirect speech is also known as reported speech.


We shall do will change to they would do.

Today          will change to that day.

These children will change to those children

This year will change to that year.

They did will change to they had done

I have been saying will change she had been saying.



1. What is the rule for using quotation marks when writing direct speech?

A) Only use them when reporting someone else’s exact words.

B) Use them whenever you want to emphasize something someone has said.

C) Omit them altogether unless the speaker is quoting someone else.

2. How do you punctuate direct speech?

A) Put commas and periods inside the quotation marks.

B) Put commas and periods outside the quotation marks, unless they’re part of the quoted material.

C) It doesn’t matter as long as you’re consistent.

3. What is the rule for capitalization when writing direct speech?

A) Capitalize the first word of each quoted sentence.

B) Capitalize all proper nouns and any other words that would be capitalized in the middle of a sentence.

C) There are no hard and fast rules, so do whatever you think looks best.

4. How do you indicate a change of speaker in direct speech?

A) Use a new paragraph for each new speaker.

B) Use quotation marks around the words of each speaker.

C) Use dashes or ellipses to indicate a pause, then start the next speaker’s words on a


SUB-TOPIC: A letter to your class teacher on your absence from school.
CONTENT: Before proceeding to the topic at hand, it is suffice to take note of the features of semi-formal letter.


Semi-formal letters are letters you write to your parents, aunts and uncles (or some other older relation), to older friends, or to some other people you know but are not very familiar with (e.g. a pen-friend you have never met). Semi-formal letters are thus different from formal letters, which you write to people in positions of authority in government offices and in private organizations.

They are also different from informal letters, which you write to close friends or relations of about your own age.

  1. The writer’s address and the date written just the way they are written informal and informal letters.


  1. The salutation to be Dear Mother, Dear Mummy, Dear Mum, My dear Mother, Mummy, Mum or Father/Dad etc. the salutation should be Dear Uncle, Dear Uncle Joe, My dear Uncle, Dear Aunt, Dear Aunty /Auntie, Dear Auntie Jamaila, My dear Auntie, Dear Brother, Dear Brother Akpan, Dear Sister, Dear Sister Chinyere, Dear Suleiman, Dear Mr. Ojo, Dear Dr. Chike, Dear Professor Samuel, Dear AlhajiGaruba, Dear Professor etc.



  1. The body of the letter: The content of the semi-formal letter (like the content of any of the other types) is determined by the topic you are asked to write on by the examiner. You think carefully about the topic, and identify the main points. Each of these main points will then be developed in one paragraph in the main body of the letter. With regard to the opening and concluding paragraphs, semi-formal letters are like the informal letters. This is because the opening paragraph is expected to contain greetings and pleasantries (questions about the welfare of the recipient’s family, business, etc. And the concluding paragraph is expected to send prayers and good wishes to the recipient and to other people well known to to both the writer and the recipient. However, if the recipient is not well known, the opening and concluding paragraphs may be much less concerned with greetings and pleasantries. It is very important to show in the language used the kind of respect you have for the recipient in real life. Although shortened forms (eg I’ve, you can’t etc) may be used in the semi-formal letter, there should be great care in using slang words and expressions. You should not use words or expressions you cannot when talking to the recipient in real life. The language should be polite.
  2. The ending of the letter: The examiner will be satisfied if you use Yours sincerely as complimentary close in your semi-formal-letter followed by your first nam

Yours sincerely,



ASSIGNMENT: With this format write a letter on the topic:   A letter to your class teacher on your absence from school.

Write to your class teacher on your absence from school.

Dear Teacher,

I hope you are well. I am sorry for my absence from school, because I was feeling very ill. I have attached a note from my parents/guardian explaining the situation. I will make up all the work I missed as soon as possible.


(Your name)


Literature: Revising Poetry (use recommended   poem).





Step 1:

The subject teacher revises the previous topic

Step 2:

He or she introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise



The subject goes round to mark the pupil’s notes. He does the necessary corrections