Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards



Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation




Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Intonation Patterns Indirect and Direct Speech Expository Essay

that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.




SPEECH WORK: The Rising Tune

STRUCTURE: Adverbials

COMPOSITION: Story Writing

LITERATURE: Structure, themes and literary devices in ‘My Tear for Africa.’


ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC: Intonation Patterns

The Rising Tune

The rising tune is like the falling tune until you get to the end, when your voice rises on or after the last stressed syllable. We use this tune for questions answered with “yes” or “no” (that is, polar questions).


  1. Have you finished your assignment?
  2. Is Joy coming with us?
  3. Did you all come to school on time?
  4. Are we finishing early today?
  5. Did you eat last night?
  6. Will Monday be good for it?

The rising tune is sometimes used to achieve a special effect or to convey a speaker’s attitude. When a special effect is intended, the rise in pitch may be gradual. The following sentences illustrate a few situations where the gradual rise in pitch is useful.

  1. Utterances showing Indifference
  2. You can do what you want.
  3. If you want to.
  4. I think that’s right.
  5. Listing Items
  6. One, two, three and four.
  7. We need some rice, beans, fish and meat.
  8. She wore a cap, shirt, bangles and a pair of trousers.

Contrast between Rising and Falling Tunes

The following examples illustrate the contrast between rising and falling tunes

  1. Can you tell me the way to the market? (Rising Tune)
  2. You can tell me the way to the market. (Falling Tune)
  3. Is this the way to the market? (Rising Tune)
  4. Which is the way to the market? (Falling Tune)


Oral English for Schools and Colleges by Sam Onuigbo; Exercises 6.4.1 a (1-15); page 99.



TOPIC: Adverbials

Adverbs are words that modify

(i) a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)

(ii) an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)

(iii) another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

  1. That lovely woman lives in a friendly

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:

  1. When this class is over, we’re going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrasePrepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):

  1. He went to the movies.
  2. She works on holidays.
  3. They lived in Canada during the war.

And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

  1. She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
  2. The senator ran to catch the bus.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

  1. He calls his mother as often as possible.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus, we would say that “the students showed a really wonderful attitude” and that “the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude” and that “my professor is really tall, but not “He ran real fast.”

Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

  1. Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.
  2. The student who reads fastest will finish first.

Examples with Adverbials in the Various Forms

The following are examples with some adverbs in various forms:


  1. She spoke well.
  2. He behaved badly.
  3. I went far.
  4. He sang beautifully.
  5. The pig ran 


  1. She spoke better.
  2. She behaved worse.
  3. You went farther.
  4. She sang more beautifully.
  5. The goat ran faster.


  1. Chukwu spoke best.
  2. Jane behaved worse.
  3. David went farthest.
  4. I sang most beautifully.
  5. The dog ran fastest.


ASPECT: Composition

TOPIC: Story Writing

Write a story which ends with the words: I wish I had told the truth at the beginning.

You may use these guidelines to write an imaginary story or a story you have been told by someone else.

  1. Write the title in capital letter and do not underline it.
  2. Explain what you did wrong in paragraph 1.
  3. Explain how people got to know the wrong you did in paragraph 2.
  4. Explain one consequence you suffered because of the wrong you did in paragraph 3.
  5. Explain the reasons why you currently regret not telling the truth at the beginning in paragraphs 4 and 5.


ASPECT: Literature

TOPIC: Reading of the recommended poem (Students should be made to read the recommended poem, ‘My Tear for Africa’: Structure, themes and literary devices.



  1. List and explain any two themes in the poem.
  2. Identify two poetic devices used in the poem.





Adverbs are words that modify verbs and adjectives, such as:

I speak slowly. She walks quickly.

Adverbs can also be used to describe how something is done (e.g., slowly) or how it feels (e.g., strongly).

to help

  • to help
  • to help a friend
  • to help a stranger
  • to help a sick person
  • to help a hungry person
  • to help a homeless person, or someone who is without belongings and lacks any means of support or income. This can include the elderly, children, and those with disabilities. It’s also possible that you will decide not only what action should be taken but also how much time should be spent on each task; for example: if someone has just been arrested – how long do we wait before calling their family? Or maybe they need immediate medical attention – should we get them into an ambulance now?

to weaken

Adverbials can be used to weaken the effect of something.

For example, if you’re trying to persuade someone that a new law should be passed, you may say: “If we let this happen, then our country will suffer.” In this sentence, “then” weakens the strength of your argument because it suggests that there is no other option available.

to affect

  • Affect is a verb that means “to influence or condition something.” It’s an irregular, transitive verb (meaning it has two different meanings in each form). Affect can be used as a noun or gerund (which we’ll get to next).
  • As a noun:
  • To affect someone with feeling or emotion; “a self-interested politician” (The New York Times).
  • As a gerund:


An infinitive is a word that can be followed by to, but it does not function as an adverb. It is often used in the same way that an example sentence would be used (e.g., “to help” or “to weaken”).

The infinitive may be followed by other words, such as:

  • To help
  • To weaken
  • To affect


Adverbs are fairly straightforward, but they can be used in unexpected ways. It’s important to keep in mind that adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. They can also be nouns or pronouns; when this happens, they become an adjective by adding “-ly” at the end of the word.