Intonation Patterns Indirect and Direct Speech Expository Essay















Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards



Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation




Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Contrasting Consonant /f/ and /v/, /s/ and /z/ and Introduction to Direct speech

that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.




SPEECH WORK: Intonation Patterns

STRUCTURE: Indirect/Direct Speech


COMPOSITION: Expository Essay

LITERATURE: Themes of Precious Little Darling


ASPECT: Speech Work

Intonation Patterns

Types of Intonation


Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch (or tone) of our voices as we speak (or sing). It helps us to communicate meaning and emotion.

Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch of our voices as we speak (or sing). In English, intonation is very important because it helps to communicate the meaning of what we say. For example, intonation can make a statement sound like a question. Take a look at these examples:

Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch of our voices as we speak (or sing). In English, intonation is very important because it helps to communicate the meaning of what we say. For example, intonation can make a statement sound like a question. Take a look at these examples:

  • “I’m not going anywhere.” – The pitch rises at the end of this sentence and falls again as you say “I’m not going anywhere,” so it sounds like you’re saying “I’m not goin’ no-where.”
  • *”Where did you go?” – The pitch goes up at the beginning of this sentence and down again at the end; therefore, this question sounds more like an accusation than anything else.*

“You’re going to come to my party?”

Rising intonation is a question, not a statement. The speaker is asking for confirmation that the listener will come to their party.

The person speaking has some doubt that their listener will come to their party, so they use rising intonation to ask again: “You’re going to come?”

“You’re going to come to my party.”

  • Statement: A statement is a sentence with a subject and predicate. In English, statements are usually made using the verb “to be” (e.g., John is tall).
  • Falling intonation: When you use falling intonation in your speech or writing, it means that the pitch of each word drops as it goes down the line. For example:
  • “John is tall”
  • “John isn’t short anymore!”

The second example was not meant as a question, but it sounds like one because the speaker used rising intonation instead of falling intonation (which we use for statements). It is also possible to tell how someone is feeling by the shape of the intonation in their voice (happy, sad, angry etc.). While this aspect is more complicated than simple statements and questions, it is still an important aspect of communication in English.

Let’s take a look at some examples.

First, let’s look at an example of rising intonation: “I am going to the store.” This sentence is said with rising intonation because it sounds like “I am going” or “I’m gonna”. It also contains two clauses: one in which you’re doing something and another where you’re not doing anything (you are discussing something). If we were to put these together without any punctuation, we’d get a sentence with no beginning or end—a long string of words that make no sense when taken out of context. That’s why we use punctuation here so as not only to separate sentences but also create meaning through pauses between phrases as well as other markers such as commas and periods (more on those later).

Now let’s look at an example from falling intonation: “You should go home.” This is spoken by someone who believes their listener should do something else instead (such as go somewhere else). This type of sentence tends towards being longer than others because there are more possible meanings behind each sound made within them; however, they can still be shortened if necessary by simply removing some words altogether – though this would affect how much time passes during this process!

You can tell what someone means by the shape of their intonation.

The shape of a person’s intonation can be one of the most telling signs that they mean what they say. We all use intonation, whether we realize it or not. It’s an unconscious way to communicate how we feel, how we mean what we say and much more. How do you use your voice when talking? Do you tend to speak in short sentences with lots of rising inflection at the end? Or do you tend to speak in longer sentences with less rising inflection at the end?

Intonation is the ‘melody’ of speech. It is the changing pitch of the voice. It is to a certain extent controlled by stress, for important changes of pitch occur only on stressed syllables.

Intonation may indicate doubt, certainty, disbelief, interest or indifference. If for instance, a speaker answers “yes” in reply to a question, different shades of meaning can be inferred from the speaker’s intonation. This reply, when given in a falling tune, means a strong affirmation which shows that there is no doubt in the speaker’s mind. But when the same reply is given in a rising tune, it suggests some reservation in the speaker’s mind. In English language, intonation has special functions which include: grammatical and attitudinal meaning.

Types of Intonation

There are two major forms of intonation in English language. These are:

  1. Falling Tune (falling intonation)
  2. Rising Tune (rising intonation)

Falling Tune

The falling tune is usually used in declarative sentences, commands, exclamations and wh-questions (questions which demand some information). In other words, when you make a statement (that is, a sentence which says that something is so), the first stressed syllable in the sentence is high, the next one lower, and so on. On the last stressed syllable, the voice falls while you are saying it. That is falling tone.

Falling intonation is when we lower our voice at the end of a sentence. This usually happens in statements and in questions that contain words like where, when, what, why, how, and who (these are called information questions). Here are some examples:


1. My name is Adewale Ayuba.

2. It is nice to meet you.

3. I’m going to the cinema.

4. I’ll be back in an hour.

5. Please have a great day.


1. What’s your address?

2. Where does he stay?

3. Why did you do that?

4. Who’s that man over there?

5. How can I close this?


Rising Tune

 Rising intonation describes how the voice rises at the end of a sentence. Rising intonation is common in yes-no questions:

Rising intonation is when we raise the pitch of our voice at the end of a sentence. We use this kind of intonation in questions that are answered with “yes” or “no” (these are called yes/no questions). Check out some examples:

1. Are you Nigerian?

2. Does he know about this?

3. Can you lend me a hand?

4. Is the man around?

5. Are we going soon?

Rising intonation is also used in expressions like:

1. Excuse me?

2. Really?

Here are some questions paired with both rising and falling intonation. Listen and practice saying them!

1. Do you know that woman? How do you know that woman?

2. Do you go to school here? Why do you go to school here?

3. Did you buy a new laptop? What kind of laptop did you buy?

4. Do you work? Where do you work?



  1. The books on the table are mine.
  2. Joy works hard in school.
  3. Emeka gave the book to her.
  4. She was in a beautiful dress on Sunday.


  1. Stop making noise.
  2. Keep the books on my table.
  3. Stand under the tree.
  4. Don’t disobey your teachers.


  1. Why are you very late?
  2. When will you be able to tell me?
  3. Who is the best person to ask?
  4. How can I find out the answer?


  1. What a good result!
  2. What a pleasant surprise!
  3. How pretty she is!


  1. What is intonation?
  2. List and explain the major forms of intonation.
  3. Write out four sentences with falling intonation
  4. Write out four sentences with rising intonation







ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech


In English, there are two types of quotation marks: direct and indirect. You use direct speech when you want to quote someone who’s speaking directly. For example, if your friend says, “I haven’t been sleeping well lately,” then you would say something like this:

“You’ve been sleeping poorly?” I asked her. “No,” she replied with a tired smile on her face.”

In this case, she is using indirect speech by providing only her own words to tell us about how she was feeling at that moment in time; however we still need some indication that she has said something rather than just making us think about what might be happening inside her head (which is what happens when authors use italics). Direct and indirect quotes can also get confusing because they’re often used interchangeably—you’ll see both types throughout writing projects at work! So here’s how these two types work together so that you can use them effectively:

In direct speech, a person’s actual words are placed within quotation marks (” “) and are reported or repeated exactly.

In direct speech, a person’s actual words are placed within quotation marks (” “) and are reported or repeated exactly. It’s used to show exactly what was said in a formal manner.

Direct speech can be used when reporting on news stories as well as in journalism and literature. For example:

  • We learned that the man had been shot by police after he tried to rob a bank at gunpoint.
  • The judge ruled that the defendant had failed to prove his innocence beyond reasonable doubt because there were no witnesses who saw him commit the crime he was accused of committing (which involved murdering his wife).

In indirect speech, the speaker’s exact words are not quoted but there is still some kind of reporting of what they said.

In indirect speech, the speaker’s exact words are not quoted but there is still some kind of reporting of what they said.

Indirect speech has two main functions: to add information to their original utterance and to make it more complex. For example, if you say “I like chocolate”, then when you give more detail about what kind of chocolate you like (e.g., milk chocolate), this can be considered as indirect speech because it gives more information than just saying “chocolate”.

Direct speech can be changed to indirect speech. This can be complicated as it requires particular grammar rules to shift the quote into the past tense, change pronouns and alter other grammatical structures.

In direct speech, the quote is in the present tense of its original form. In other words, it’s being spoken by someone who is not currently speaking. To change this quote into indirect speech, you need to shift it into the past tense of its original form. This can be done by changing pronouns and altering other grammatical structures like verb tenses and word order.

The most common way to do this is by using verbs with their past participle forms (e.g., “said” becomes “said”). Some examples include:


Different quotation marks are used in different countries to indicate direct and indirect speech.

You may be wondering how quotation marks are used in different countries. The answer is simple: they’re single or double depending on whether you’re talking about direct or indirect speech.

In the UK, single quotation marks are used to indicate direct speech. In the US, double quotation marks are used for this purpose. In Australia and Canada, however, both words should appear with single quotation marks regardless of whether they are being said directly or indirectly; this is because these countries use different conventions for their unique languages (see below).

You often introduce direct speech with a verb like “say,” although don’t forget to use a comma before the quote. You generally introduce indirect speech with a verb like “say.”

Direct speech is introduced with the verb “say.” Indirect speech is introduced by using a verb like “say” or “tell.”

You often introduce direct speech with a verb like “say,” although don’t forget to use a comma before the quote. You generally introduce indirect speech with a verb like “say.”

Writers and reporters use both types of speech to inform the reader about something that has been said, so choose whichever makes your writing flow best.

Direct and indirect speech are two different types of writing that can be used to express the same ideas. In direct speech, you tell your reader exactly what someone said or how they felt about something. Indirect speech is used when you want to add emphasis or emotion by paraphrasing what someone said instead of quoting their exact words verbatim. Both forms are appropriate in journalism: they’re both reporting methods, but one is more direct than the other.

Direct Speech: “I’m sorry,” she said softly.”

Indirect Speech: “I’m sorry.” She muttered under her breath then turned away from him again

For this article we would use direct quotations for effect, but for many other articles you can use either!

Direct quotations are used to add impact to the writing. They can be direct or indirect, depending on whether they are quoted directly from another source.

Indirect quotations help you provide information for your readers. For example, if you’re writing about how much time it takes to drive from one city to another, you might use an indirect quotation like this: “It took me three hours” (from The New York Times). This type of quote would not be appropriate for an article about traffic jams, however; instead we would use direct quotes like this: “It took me three hours.”





Direct Speech

Direct speech means the exact speech or sentence of a particular speaker. This means that if a person says something, we say or write exactly the same words he used. It also means that we are quoting the speaker.


(i) The boy likes me much.

Direct speech – He said, ‘The boy likes me much’.

(ii) How many of us are invited?

Direct speech – He asked, ‘How many of us are invited?’

(iii) Go out immediately.

Direct Speech – He ordered me, ‘Go out immediately.’

Please note that direct speeches are always in quotation marks.

Indirect Speech

This is also called reported speech. It means what the speaker says is reported.


(i) The boy likes me much. Indirect Speech- He said that the boy liked him much.

(ii) How many of us are invited? Indirect Speech – He asked them how many of them were invited.

(iii) Go out immediately. Indirect Speech – He ordered me to go out at once.

(iv) Can you swim for ten hours non-stop? Indirect Speech – He asked me if I could swim for ten hours nonstop.

Changing of Sentences from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech

Rules of Indirect Speech

  1. After mentioning the speaker (subject) and the verb, the reported speech is introduced with the conjunction ‘that’ where appropriate.
  2. All the verbs in the present tense in a quotation must be changed to past tense, e.g. says to said, has to had, is to was, can to could, may to might, shall to should, will to would; but the verb must not be changed if it expresses a permanent truth or customary fact, e.g. He said that the world is round.
  3. All pronouns must be changed to the third person, e.g. I to he/she; me to him/her, we to they, our to their.
  4. All words of nearness must be changed to corresponding words of remoteness e.g. now to then, here to there, this to that, these to those, yesterday to the previous day, tomorrow to the next day, last week to the previous week and next year to the following year.

Note very carefully how the rules are applied in the following examples:

(i) Direct Speech: Akin said, ‘I can do it now’.

Indirect Speech: Akin said that he could do it then.

(ii) Direct Speech: Ladi remarked, ‘My team wins this year.’

Indirect Speech: Ladi remarked that his team won that year.

(iii) Direct Speech: She said, The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

Indirect Speech: She said that the sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

  1. A command can be reported with one of the following verbs: told, commanded, ordered or instructed; e.g.

(a) Direct Speech: The tutor said “stop talking”.

(b) Indirect Speech: One of the following:

(i) The tutor told the student to stop talking.

(ii) The tutor commanded the student to stop talking.

(iii) The tutor ordered the student to stop talking.

(iv) The tutor instructed the student to stop talking.

  1. A question can be reported with the use of one of the following: asked of, asked if, asked whether, inquired whether or requested to know; e.g.
  2. Direct Speech: The man asked, “Can you come tomorrow?”
  3. Indirect Speech: One of the following:

(i) The man asked if I could come the next day.

(ii) The man asked whether I could come the next day.

(iii) The man inquired whether I could come the next day.



Now that you know about the pros and cons of using direct and indirect speech, you can use them in your writing to create more variety. Either way, your readers will understand what is being said!



Turn the following sentences to reported speech:

  • The boy said, “I will do it tomorrow”.
  • The student said, “My tutor has a round table.”
  • He asked, “What is your name?”
  • The tutor said, “go out.”
  • She asked, “Have you paid your fees?”
  • The designer said to her, ‘will you have the dress ready by tomorrow evening?’
  • They said, ‘Let us come in’.
  • Usman said to Ishola, ‘Why are you sleeping in the class?
  • The Professor said, ‘Nobody can solve the problem’.
  • ‘Stand at ease’, The soldier said to his men

Turn the following sentences to direct speech:

  • Olu asked where I went the previous day.
  • The tutor ordered her to stand up.
  • She begged the tutor to allow her to stay in the class.
  • Bako promised to see me that day.
  • The tutor instructed us to do the work the next day.
  • The woman said that she was tired
  • The princess said that she was the messenger of the powerful mermaid
  • The teacher said that we should all go out
  • Fidelis said that he was hungry
  • Helen said that it was always good to be good




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