Diphthongs, Tenses (Present, Past, Future Tenses) and  Introduction to Summary Writing













Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

  Consonant Clusters, Adjectives (Comparative and Superlative Adjectives) and Introduction to Prose (Features of Prose)

that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.




Topic :



SPEECH WORK: Diphthongs

STRUCTURE: Tenses (Present, Past, Future Tenses)

COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: (NOSEC. Pages 89-90) Reading for Speed; Politics

SUMMARY: Introduction to Summary Writing

COMPOSITION: Argumentative Essay(Arguing a Position)

LITERATURE: Introduction to Drama: (Elements of Drama)      



Behavioural objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards



Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation




Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks






SPEECH WORK: Diphthongs

STRUCTURE: Tenses (Present, Past, Future Tenses)

COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: (NOSEC. Pages 89-90) Reading for Speed; Politics

SUMMARY: Introduction to Summary Writing

COMPOSITION: Argumentative Essay(Arguing a Position)

LITERATURE: Introduction to Drama: (Elements of Drama)      




Diphthong is a Greek word which means “double sound”. The articulation of diphthongs involves a glide from one vowel quality to the other. A diphthong is therefore a vowel which changes its quality in the process of its articulation.

What are the eight diphthongs?
There are 8 diphtongs sounds in English pronunciation in particular-/a/,/e/,/əʊ/,/aʊ/,/eə/,/ɪə/,/ɔɪ/,/ʊə/. “Diphthong” is essentially derived from the Greek word “diphthongs.” This word, in a real sense, signifies “having two different sounds.”

/ei/ e.g.  gate, cake, take, place, date, gauge etc.

/əᴜ/ e.g.  home, go, owl, own, etc

/ai/ e.g.  buy, five, rice, write, kite, fry, price etc.

/au/ e.g.  how, cloud, out, house, blouse, browse etc.

/oi/ e.g.  boy, joy, toy, oil, toil coin, boil etc .

/ iə / e.g.  here, ear, idea, fear, beer ,rear etc.

/ eə / e.g.  air, their, where, hair, fair etc

/ᴜә/ e.g.  during, pure, sure, tour…


  1. What is the meaning of diphthongs?
  2. At the point when a syllable has just a single vowel sound, it’s known as a _____.(a)Diphthongs (b)Vowels (c)Monophthong (d)careless
  3. Which one of these words has diphthongs? (a) Slow (b) fertilizer (c)Observe (d)Card
  4. Which sets of the accompanying words has a similar diphthong? (a) influence grin (b) home-house (c)play-take (d)however extreme

Indicate the diphthong used in the following words e.g. Eye – /ai/

  1. coat –
  2. spy –
  3. point –
  4. tape –
  5. tour –






Tenses are ways by which we can express ourselves based on the time that the events take place. In other words, tenses show the time of an action in a sentence. The verb plays a very important role in tenses.

Present Tense

Present Simple Tense

Simple present tense is used to express habitual actions that are done almost every day, always, often or regularly. Pronouns like He, she, it or singular nouns always take singular take as s to indicate singular verbs. Plural verbs in simple present tense do not take an s


  1. He comes here often.
  2. They come here every weekend.
  3. She dances
  4. Okocha passes the ball.
  5. Edet goes to church every Sunday

The Present Continuous Tense

This is used for actions that are taking place at the time we are talking. E.g.

  1. Mr  Adeyi is teaching us English Language.
  2. am eating my dinner.
  3. We are going to church.
  4. Andrew is reading a novel now
  5. Elizabeth is praying now

The Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used to express actions that have just been done.


  1. She has just gone
  2. We have left the place.
  3. have lived here for ten years.
  4. She has taught English for five years.
  5. Mrs. Ananga has travelled to Paris

Past Tense

The Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense is used to express action that was done in the past. The action must have taken place in a period in the past whch may be yesterday, last week, last month, last summer, last Thursday etc.


  1. worked as an uber driver last month when i needed money badly
  2. Olu passed the last stage of the examination last year.
  3. He made his way home.
  4. She sang so beautifully.

The Past Continuous Tense

Sentences in past continuous tense are used to express or say actions that were going on during the point in action when other actions were done. That simply means that two actions were simultaneously going on in the past and one of such actions was in continuous tense,


  1. was teaching the students yesterday when the principal sent for me.
  2. While the bus was moving, the woman jumped down.
  3. Ayo and I were reading for our examination this last week when we heard a very strange noise from the laboratory.
  4. Mrs. Goleman was eating when Seyi switched on the TV set
  5. Mrs. Popoola was sleeping when Mr. Pepper came in

The Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense is used to indicate that an action had already been completed in the past before another action took place.


  1. The boy had died before help reached him.
  2. By the time I got to the office, Olu had left for the meeting.
  3. The suspect had escaped when the police raised the alarm.
  4. James had alighted by the time we got to the bus-stop.
  5. Mrs. Quadri had already studied French before she left for Paris

The Past perfect Continuous Tense

The past continuous tense is used to depict an activity that began previously and went on until a particular time before.


  1. We had been praying since 1998 before God intervened in 2008.
  2. The girl had been writing for five years before she passed it last year.
  3. The man had been waiting for you since yesterday.
  4.  The criminal had been doing this for several years before he was caught last month.
  5. Tobi Amusan had been practicing very hard before she won a medal.

Future Tense

Future tense is used to express an action that is yet to happen. It is used to say what we are going to do tomorrow, next week, next month or any point in time that is yet to come

There are four major divisions of future tense, they are the Simple Future, the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect, and the Future Perfect Continuous.

The Simple Future Tense

The simple future tense is used to express what we shall do tomorrow, next week, next month, next year or in any future time. In simple future tense , we and I go with shall while pronouns like you, they , he or she go with auxiliary verb will


  1. They will finish the work tomorrow.
  2. He will arrive next Saturday.
  3. I shall be ten years old tomorrow
  4. We shall attend the party if we are invited.
  5. The Lord is my Sheperd , I shall not want

The Future Continuous


  1. He will be waiting for us.
  2. They will be arriving next month
  3. The baby will be playing the whole night long.
  4. We shall be praying to God for a period of forty days
  5. Adewale will be singing his new single during the ball this summer.

The Future Perfect


  1. She would have finished the work by Wednesday.
  2. Sola would have cleaned the room before the guests arrived.
  3. They would have eaten breakfast by the time he got up.

The Future Perfect Continuous


  1. By next January, she will have been living here for a year.
  2. You will have been travelling great deal by the time you return home.
  3. He will have been working for ten months by the time he takes his vacation.


ASPECT: COMPREHENSION/VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: New Oxford Secondary English Course. Pages 89-90.

TOPIC: Reading for Speed

Mr. Okonkwo scratched his head in confusion. What was happening? he asked himself. After exactly five minutes of play Gregory had scored a goal. Mr. Okonkwo quietly wiped the cold sweat…

Words Associated with Politics

  1. ballot box
  2. constituencies
  3. electors
  4. voters
  5. counting of the votes
  6. manifesto
  7. political parties
  8. polling station
  9. candidates
  10. rig
  11. electorate


Look up the meaning of the listed words in your dictionary and use them in sentences (one for each).



TOPIC: Introduction to Summary

Summary simply means to reduce a given passage without dropping the major points in the passage. It is also possible to summarise what someone said without necessarily remembering all the words he used.

In the summary section, you are given a passage which looks like a comprehension passage. It could be an expository, argumentative a narrative or a descriptive passage. The summary questions require you to write a few words and sentences.


  1. What is summary?
  2. Summarize what happened before you got to class this morning.



TOPIC: Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essays are compositions written in order to win the reader to the writer’s side with convincing and reasonable points.

Examples of argumentative essays or compositions are:

“Raining season is better than dry season”, “Civilian government is far better than military government”, etc.

Format for Writing an Argumentative Essay

Good day, Mr. Chairman, Panel of Judges, Accurate Time – Keeper, Ladies and Gentlemen, Co-debater and the Distinguished Listener. My name is ………….., I writing to support or oppose the motion which states that ……………


With these convincing points I have raised, I hope I have been able to convince you that ———


  1. Write the format for the introduction of an argumentative essay.
  2. Write the concluding part of an argumentative composition.



TOPIC: Drama

SUB-TOPICFeatures of Drama

Meaning of Drama

Drama is a play written for actors and actresses to perform on stage before an audience, on radio or television. It is basically a performing art and therefore depends on action for its effectiveness. It involves the originating of forms which relates to action, language, characters of a story and a play.

Features of Drama

  1. It is meant to be performed on stage for audiences to watch.
  2. It involves dialogue
  3. It involves the interaction of many people.
  4. It makes the audience partake fully or partially as a play is being acted.
  5. It could be written in verse or in prose. In other words, in terms of language, drama too makes use of words that are made fully meaningful by the actors and actresses.


  1. What is drama?

Outline the features of drama





The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise





The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she makes the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.










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