Contrasting Consonant /f/ and /v/, /s/ and /z/ and Introduction to Direct speech















Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards



Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation




Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

   Types of Sentences (Functional) Questions, Statements, and Commands.

that was taught as a topic during the last lesson.




Speech Work: Contrasting Consonant /f/ and /v/, /s/ and /z/

Structure: Direct Speech

Comprehension/Vocabulary Development: The Media- The Press. Reading for Summary: The Ojo Family-(B) (NOSCE. Pages 132-133)

Composition: Oral: Expository

Literature: Setting of the Text: Precious Little Darling


Learning Objectives 

By the end of the lesson, learners will be able to

  • recognize contrasting sounds like Contrasting /f/ and /v/; /s/ and /z/
  • give examples of words with Contrasting /f/ and /v/; /s/ and /z/
  • pronounce words with Contrasting /f/ and /v/; /s/ and /z/


ASPECT: Speech work

TOPIC: Contrasting /f/ and /v/; /s/ and /z/

/f/: The production of /f/ involves the front upper teeth and the lower lips. Because of the partial obstruction caused by the contact between the upper teeth and the lower lip, there is a continuous frictional noise as the airstream passes. There is no vibration of the vocal cord because the glottis is wide open during the production of /f/. This consonant is, therefore, a voiceless sound which has the following spelling symbols:

“f”  as   in   feet

“ph” as in Physics

“gh” as  in   laugh

Pronounce the following words with /f/ at the initial and final positions:

Initial Final
fun loaf
fry grief
phase laugh
flow staff
fly wolf
fought lift
fast gift
float gulf
flag cough
freeze self

/v/: The contact between the lower lip and the upper front teeth causes a partial obstruction to the flow of air. There are some frictional noises as the airstream escapes and the vocal cords vibrate. /v/ is therefore a voiced consonant sound spelt “v” except in ‘Stephen’

Pronounce the following words where /v/ occurs at the initial and final positions:

Initial Final
vane naive
vast weave
velar starve
voice lever
verse serve
vane save
verb have
veal leave
vat give

Now pronounce the following pairs of words and pay attention to the contrast between /f/ and /v/:

/f/ /v/ /f/ /v/
fine vine serf serve
fast vast safe save
fan van staff starve
few view belief believe

/s/ and /z/:

/s/ and /z/ are produced In ALMOST the same way (the BLADE of the TONGUE touching the alveolar (or teeth) RIDGE FIRMLY for /s/ and GENTLY for /z/.

/s/ is VOICELESS, while /z/ is VOICED.

/s/ and /z/ are both ALVEOLAR FRICATIVES (‘alveolar’ because the blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge are involved in their production).


Pronounce each pair of the above listed words to show clearly the distinctions between them.

/s/ /z/
sue zoo
sip zip
seal zeal
bus buzz
price prize
cease sieze
course cause
house houses
lice lies
ice eyes


  1. Pronounce these sounds: /s/, /z/, /f/ and /v/
  2. Give examples of words that have the sounds listed above.




ASPECT: Structure

TOPIC: Direct Speech

In this study note we review the grammar rules for using direct speech in writing and we look at how you should punctuate and format direct speech.

Direct speech gives the actual words that the speaker used. It is common in novels and other writing where the actual words of a speaker are quoted.

Direct speech is a sentence in which the exact words spoken by the first or original speaker are reproduced in speech marks (also known as quotation marks or inverted commas).

There are two ways of presenting what someone says in your essay or report, that is, by using direct speech (the person’s exact words written between quotation marks) and reported speech (a summary of what was said).

Let’s begin by looking at how to use direct speech.

As you probably know, when you are writing direct speech you need to use quotation marks (single or double) on either side of what the speaker says.

As we have already mentioned, when we write down what someone has said, we can either use direct speech or reported speech.

We can also use reported speech to express personal opinions.

We can also use reported speech when we want a more formal style than direct speech offers.

Use this note to improve your Direct Speech skills

Here are the examples of sentences in Direct speech

  1. Monica said, ‘There is nothing we can do about it.’
  2. The reporting verb may come before the words that were actually spoken, or after them, or at a natural pause inside the reported sentence.
  3. Monica said, ‘There is nothing we can do about it.’
  4. ‘There is nothing we can do about it,’ Monica said.
  5. ‘It’s no good,’ Monica said, ‘we’ll just have to ask for help.’
  6. Emily says, “I am very ill and indisposed.”
  7. I will eat popcorn”, Victoria said.
  8. “What is your age?” he asked me.
  9. “How old is your father?”, he asked.
  10. The teacher said to the boy, “Where do you live?”


  1. Explain direct speech
  2. Write out ten direct speeches and insert the quotation marks in the right place.



TOPIC: The Ojo Family (Passage B)/The Media

While you are reading each paragraph, think hard all the time: ‘Which is the key word, phrase or sentence in this paragraph…

EVALUATION: Comprehension Questions



TOPIC: Oral Expository Essay: “The Campaign”

The teacher should discuss this orally with the students. He should allow them to be the ones doing the reasoning and just being a guide.


The evaluation should be based on the level of reasoning of the students on topic at hand.


ASPECT: Literature:

TOPIC: Reading of literature texts recommended.



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