PRIMARY 6 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTES BASIC TECHNOLOGY

 

FIRST TERM PRIMARY SIX WEEKS TOPICS/ CONTENTS

  • Units I Review of Primary Five’s Work
  • Units II Synthetic & Naturally Occurring Drugs
  • Unit III Drug use and abuse
  • Unit IV Our Weather
  • Unit V Earth and Sky Movement
  • Unit VI the Earth’s Movement LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS
  • Unit VII Living and Non-living Things
  • Identification of living and non-living things
  • Characteristics of living and non-living things
  • Unit VIII Growing Crops
  • Unit IX Improving Crops Yield
  • Unit X the Human Circulatory System
  • The Structure and Functions of the hearth
  • Unit XI Revision
  • Unit XII Examination

WEEK 2

TOPIC: SYNTHETIC AND NATURALLY-OCCURRING DRUGS

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

1 .State the meaning of drugs.

  • List the types of drugs
  • Mention the classification of drugs. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing different kinds of drugs. REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information


BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

 

Meaning of Drugs

Good health is very important because without it/ we shall not be able to do anything. A sick person cannot go to school/ work or farm.

Since human beings are generally exposed to things that may make them sick/ such as environmental pollution/ malnutrition and germs/ it is therefore necessary to take drugs or substances that will fight against the causes of the sickness in the body.

A drug is a substance that affects the action of the body.’ Drugs can be used as medicine (i.e. to treat or prevent diseases) or as a stimulant (i.e. to make the body more active). Some of our food crops which are used for food are also drugs to our body. It is therefore nece ssary to take them moderately. If these food drugs are taken in large amounts they may become harmful to our body.

 

Types of Drugs

There are mainly two types of drugs. They are:


  • Naturally occurring Drugs

They are called natural products.

These are substances from nature, e.g. vegetables, kola nut, coffee, tea, tobacco, fruits (such as lemon, lime), garlic, salt, pure honey.

  • Synthetic Drugs

.These are chemical substances produced by human beings to treat or prevent diseases. A person who is trained to prepare and dispense drugs and medicine

is celled a Pharmacist. Examples of synthetic drugs are; paracetamol, chloroquine/ aspirin. Drugs that are in solid form are called tablets. Drugs in liquid form are called syrup.

 

WWW.MDTEACHERSRESOURC

 

The two main types of drugs can still be classified into:

  • Normal drugs
  • Hard drugs

 

Normal drugs are the common drugs that doctors and nutritionists prescribed to treat or prevent illness. Examples are paracetamol, aspirin and chloroquine.

 

Hard drugs are drugs that are not really for medical purposes. They have stimulant effects on the body i.e. they-affect mood or behavior. Examples include cocaine/ heroine/marijuana and cannabis

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 .State the meaning of drugs.

  • List the types of drugs
  • Mention the classification of drugs.

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

Answer these questions

  • What is a drug?
  • Explain the difference between naturally-occurring drugs and synthetic drugs.
  • Give four examples of naturally-occurring drugs in Nigeria.
  • I can buy any drugs I like directly from a chemist’s shop – true or false?
  • Is food a drug? Give reasons for your answer.

WEEK 3

TOPIC: DRUG USE

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

1 .State the meaning of drugs use.

  • List the effect excessive usage of drugs
  • Define drug abuse.

4, mention the effects of drug abuse,


INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing different kinds of drugs. REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

Effects of Normal Dosage of Drugs

A dosage is the prescribed amount of medicine one can take at a time. Normal uses of drugs have their effects on our body.

These are:

  • It makes us healthy.
  • It aids proper working of the body system.
  • It sustains our strength.
  • It relieves the sick person of their ailment.

 

Effect of Excessive Dosage of Drugs

Excessive dosage of drugs is taking drugs more than the body needs. This always have bad effects on the body. Excessive use of drugs is thus a form of drug abuse.

The effects of excessive use of drugs are:

  • Destruction of body cells.
  • Weakening of body organs.
  • Malfunction of the body systems.
  • Exposure of body to diseases.


DRUG ABUSE

 

Meaning of Drug Abuse

We have stated that drug abuse is the act of taking drugs without the  direction and prescription of a qualified medical doctor or pharmacist.

Drug abuse is a bad habit which endangers our health. It includes:

(i) Illegal taking of drugs. (il) Taking of over-dose.

(ill) Taking treatment from quacks (unqualified medical, personnel).

  • Taking of expired drugs.
  • Excessive taking of items like alcoholic drinks, cigarettes.
  • Self-medication.
  • Taking sleeping pills such as Valium-5 (Diozeporn) without a doctor’s prescription.

Some of the drugs that can be abused include:

(i) Caffeine (ii) paracetamol

(iii) Heroine (IV) cocaine

(v) Valium (vi) madras

(vii) Indian hemp.

 

Effect of Drug Abuse

There are some drugs which are called hard drugs. These, we have learnt earlier. They are so called because they have a very strong effect on a human’s well being.

Examples of hard drugs are; cocaine (cracks), heroine, madras, cannabis, Valium-5 (Diazepam), marijuana (Indian hemp).

The effects of drug abuse in human life can be:

  • Health effects e.g. High blood pressure, stroke, weight loss, respiratory tract infection (like tuberculosis), heart failure, sleeplessness, death..
  • Socio-economic effects – such as poor performance in school, truancy, financial problems, violence and criminal actions e.g. bullying, rape and armed robbery.
  • Emotional effects – such as depression, anger, aggression.


  • Psychological and mental effects – such as madness, loss of memory.

 

Identification of Drug Abuse

The following are some of the signs of drug abuse:

  • Loss of weight
  • Loss of appetite
  • Drunken behavior (staggering)
  • Tremors or convulsion
  • Immoral behavior
  • Madness.

 

Treatment of Drug Abuse

For drug abuse to be treated; the following could be done:

  • Arranging guidance and counseling sessions for ‘drug abusers’.
  • Banning of hard drugs by the government.

(ill) Avoidance of bad company by drug abusers (peer group effect). drama Le./ plays that are useful and purposeful.

Treatment of drug abuse may sometimes include imprisonment of

Assessment & Evaluation:

1 .State the meaning of drugs use.

  • List the effect excessive usage of drugs
  • Define drug abuse.

4, mention the effects of drug abuse

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

 

WEEK4

TOPIC: OUR WEATHER

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • State the meaning of weather.
  • Mention some instruments used in measuring weather condition. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:



A chart showing the instruments for measuring weather condition REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

OUR WEATHER

Weather conditions are measured with weather instruments. The result obtained from measurement and observation of the Weather is reported in weather records.

 

Weather Records

The relatively permanent condition of the weather for a long Period of time in a given area is called climate. Weather records are used to forecast the conditions of the Atmosphere at regular intervals.

 

Weather records help ‘to predict the weather and the Predictions also help us in our day to day activities such as agriculture, travelling, planning, etc.

 

Weather changes over a short period of time. Scientist that study Weather conditions are called meteorologist. There are various Ways of keeping weather records. One of such ways is to Measure weather conditions and record them in a chart. In this case, a weather chart is formed. A weather chart is thus a record of weather changes over a period of time.

 

Some of the instruments used are presented in the table below.

 

Weather conditions Instruments used
1.Rainfall Rain Gauge


2.Atmosphericpressure Barometer
3.Temperature Thermometer
4.Winddirection Wind vane
5.Windintensity Anemometer
6.Relativehumidity Hygrometer
7.Lightintensity Photometer

 

Assessment & Evaluation:

  • State the meaning of weather.
  • Mention some instruments used in measuring weather condition.

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

 

WEEK 5

TOPIC: OUR EARTH AND SKY

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • State the shape of the earth
  • State the meaning of gravitational force
  • explain the moon, sky and planet. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing the instruments for measuring weather condition REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.


CONTENT OF THE LESSON

 

Shape of the Earth

What is the shape of the earth? You might have the idea that the earth is flat. The earth is not flat, as you would think; it is round (spherical) in shape.

 

It is one of the nine planets that revolve round the sun. It consists of three parts:

  • Land – mountains, rocks, hills, grassland, dry land, forest, desert. This is the part of the earth where human beings live.
  • Water – oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, streams. This covers about two-thirds of the earth.
  • Atmosphere – air, cloud. This is the mixture of gases that envelops the earth i.e., the mixture of gases that surround the earth’s surface.

 

How do we know the earth is spherical?

We have good reasons to believe that the earth is round and not flat. The following are some of the reasons:

  • When a ship appears the horizon, the top of the mast is seen before any other part owing to the curvature of the earth.
  • We know that the sun rises at different times in different places.

If the earth were flat, the sun would rise at the same time in all places.

  • When we take pictures from high altitudes through a telescope, the pictures show clearly that the earth is curved or spherical. It is not flat.
  • Nobody has seen the edge of the earth; if it was flat people would have seen the edge.

The Earth’s Gravitational Pull

When something falls to the ground we say that it is pulled by a force. This force is known as the force of gravity. This means that the earth exerts a force on bodies that tends to pull these bodies towards the ground. This force is called gravitational force. Therefore any object thrown up would eventually come back to the ground because the force of gravity pulls it towards the ground.


Weight of objects on Earth

The effect of the pull of the earth on an object is measured by its weight. The greater the amount of matter an object contains, the greater its weight. Another name for the amount of matter is mass. The mass of an object is constant but the pull of the earth (known as gravity) varies from place to place. Thus the weight of an object depends on the gravity:

 

Weight (W) = mass (m) x gravity (g)

 

For example, a school bag full of books will weigh more than an empty bag of the same size if measured at the same place.

 

Weight of Objects on the Moon

Scientists have found out that the earth is nearly four times as big as the moon, and that the weight of the earth is six times the weight of the moon.

The moon, like the earth, exerts a pull on objects around it. The force of gravity of the moon is one sixth of the force of gravity of the earth. So an object that weighs 120 N on the earth will weigh only 20N on the moon. This means that an object weighs much less on the moon than it weighs on the earth. Despite this fact, the object still has the same mass.

 

Sky

The sky is the space we look up to from the earth. It is the space high above the earth. It is farther than we can see. The sky immediately above us is blue owing to the earth’s atmosphere.

Beyond this blue sky is the boundless black sky that we simply refer to as space.

Objects that can be seen in the sky (space) are: the sun, the stars, the moon and the other planets. The sun gives light both to the earth and moon. The moon revolves around the earth; therefore it is called the earth’s satellite. This means that a satellite is described as an object that revolves round (orbits) a larger object. Jupiter, a planet, has as many as twelve satellites revolving around it.


Space Travel

Space Travel is the journeying of a space traveler, otherwise known as an astronaut, to explore the environment (space) outside the earth.

Scientists who study space and the objects we can find in it are called astronomers.

 

One place that an astronaut can travel to is the moon. We have learnt that objects weigh much less on the moon than they weigh on the earth. This is  why an astronaut wears a heavy space jacket so that he can walk on the moon. Even with the space jacket, an astronaut often hops about as if he cannot walk normally as he does on the surface of the earth

If an astronaut can jump one metre on earth, he will be able to jump six metres on the moon, because the pull of the moon’s gravity on him is very slight.

 

The Sun as a Major Source of Energy

The sun is a huge ball of burning gas. It is about 150 million kilometers from the earth.

 

The brightness of the day, which gradually comes in as the sun rises from the east, shows that the sun is a source of light. Light and heat travel through space. The rays reach us by radiation and they heat up the earth.

Assessment & Evaluation:

  • State the shape of the earth
  • State the meaning of gravitational force
  • Explain the moon, sky and planet.

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

[mediator_tech]


 

First Term Examination Basic Science and Technology Primary 5

WEEK 6

TOPIC: THE EARTH’S MOVEMENT AND ITS EFFECTS BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • Mention how the earth rotate
  • Mention the effect of revolution of the earth.
  • List the types of eclipse. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing the movement of the earth REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

Rotation of the Earth

The study of the universe has led to the discovery of the planets, the stars, the gases and other things. The earth is one of the nine planets of the solar system. It is the planet in which life exist. It consists of three parts and it is spherical  in shape.

The earth rotates from the West to the East as if it is being turned on an imaginary line passing through its centre. This imaginary line is called the earth’s axis. This rotation of the earth about its axis causes day and night.

It was discovered that when the earth’ rotates, since it is spherical, only one half of it faces the sun, ‘and it is day time in countries on that part of the  earth. The other side which does not receive the light from the sun, at that time, is dark and it is night time in such places. The earth makes one’ complete rotation about its axis in twenty-four hours.


Revolution of the Earth Round the Sun

At the same time as the earth rotates on its axis, it also revolves round the sun. The movement of the earth round the sun is called the revolution of the earth.

 

As mentioned earlier, the movement of the earth round the sun is called the revolution of the earth.

The earth revolves round the sun in about 365 days or in one year. The path of the earth round the sun is not a circle. It is a (geometrical) shape called an ellipse.

The Effect of the Revolution of the Earth

 

The seasons

The revolution of the earth round the sun makes it possible for some parts of the earth to receive more sunlight than other parts at a given time. There are two major seasons in Nigeria namely: wet season and dry season. Between the months of October and February, the weather is very hot and dry. This is called the dry season. This means that a large amount of the sun’s rays reaches Nigeria during this period of the earth’s Revolution.


Between the months of March and September, there is a lot of rainfall. The weather is cooler and windy. This is the wet season. It is noteworthy that between the months of December and February, there is a special period during the dry season, when the weather is hot and dry during the day, yet it is very cold at night and in the early mornings. This is the harmattan period.

 

All these changes in the seasons are caused by the revolution of the earth round the sun. This revolution of the earth round the sun is from East to West.

 

The Cardinal Points

The earth is divided into four cardinal points or main bearings on a compass. These are: East, West, North and South. The compass is used to find directions based on these points.

 

Eclipses

There are two types of eclipses: an eclipse of the sun and an eclipse of the moon


Activity

Materials

A candle, matches, a football, tennis or a ping-pong ball and a piece of cardboard.

 

Arrange a lighted candle, a tennis or a ping-pong ball and cardboard paper in a straight line, in a dark room (close the windows of your classroom). Look at the cardboard paper.

What do you observe?

 

You will observe that a shadow of the ball falls on the cardboard at B. This is because light is not reaching it at that point. The sections A and C which are very close to B receive very small amounts of light. The ball is an opaque object, and it blocks the light of the candle from reaching the cardboard at B.

(iii) Show the part of the earth that has very bright light.

 

Eclipse of the Moon

An eclipse of the moon occurs when the earth comes in between the sun and the moon.

With the candle light representing the sun, the football representing the earth and the tennis or ping pong ball representing the moon, draw a diagram to show the eclipse of the moon.

BASIC TECHNOLOGY JSS 1 SECOND TERM EXAMINATION

[mediator_tech]

 

Solar System

The solar system comprises the sun and all the bodies (planets, satellites and other objects) moving round it.

There are nine planets which revolve round-the sun. Each planet has its own path. The planets are: (i) Mercury, (ii) Venus, (iii) Earth, (iv) Mars, (v) Jupiter, (vi) Saturn, (vii) Uranus, (viii) Neptune and (ix) Pluto.

 

Note: Pluto is much smaller than any of the official planets and now classified as a’ dwarf planet’.

The path along which each planet moves round the sun is called its orbit. We should note that the sun is a star, it produces light. Stars are objects in space, which produce light.

 

The Planets

The planets are not stars, so they do not produce light like the sun. They are seen at night because they reflect light from the sun. The planets may appear like bright stars to us at night because they are much nearer to us than any star. Any bright object in the sky that does not twinkle at night is a planet.

 

The distance of the earth from the sun is about 150 million kilometres and as we already know, it travels round the sun in 365 days. The table below shows


the distance of each planet from the sun. It also shows the time it takes each planet to travel round the sun and the number of moons the planet has.

 

Satellites

We have learnt that the moon moves round the earth. The moon is therefore a satellite of the earth. he bodies at move around the planets are called satellites.

 

Scientists have also constructed objects which move round the earth; these objects are called artificial satellites. These satellites receive radio and television messages from one part of the world and convey them to another part of the world. Some satellites take very accurate pictures of locations and objects on the earth. They normally travel from the West to the Eost, and appear as tiny stars at night.

 

Stars

The sun is a star and it is about 150 million kilometers away from our earth. Stars twinkle and because they are far away, they look like tiny points of light. The nearest star to the earth is forty -three million kilometres away. Look at the sky at night. You might notice some groups of stars that show very clearly. These stars can be seen more easily in the tropics, .in late evening by months of January and February and in the early morning of September  and October. They can also be seen clearly at midnight.

 

A scientist who studies heavenly bodies which includes stars is called an astronomer. Astronomers use special equipment like telescopes to observe these heavenly bodies.


If you observed the sky carefully you would see that the stars are not all the same colour. The hottest ones like Rigel appear blue. Those that are not so hot appear white, while cooler stars look yellow. The coolest stars like Betelguse seem to have a red Colour.

Assessment & Evaluation:

  • Mention how the earth rotate
  • Mention the effect of revolution of the earth.
  • List the types of eclipse.

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding

Answer these questions

  • Name a natural body found under the earth and in your area which is useful in your home and another which is useful in your school.
  • Name a natural body which is found both on the earth and under the earth.
  • Why does a small piece of cotton thrown up not readily fall back to the ground?
  • Give one reason why you believe that the earth exerts an attraction on bodies.

WEEK 7&8

Topic: Living and non-living things

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • Name the common fertilizers.
  • State the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
  • Describe how to make compost.
  • State how a poor farmer improves the yield of his crops?

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing the instruments for planting crops. REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work


All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

Improving crop yield

There are several ways by which farmers can improve their crop yield. Some of these are: planting high-yielding varieties, planting on fertile soil, planting at the right time (such as early in the rainy season), applying fertilizers, and controlling weeds, pests and crop diseases.

.

Fertilizers

A fertilizer is a substance which is added to the soil to make crops grow well. There are two main groups of fertilizers: manure and chemical fertilizers.

Manure is waste matter from plants and animals. Examples of manure are cow dung, pig dung, goat and sheep dung, chicken droppings, farmyard manure and compost.

 

Compost

Compost is a mixture of decayed plant materials which is used as a fertilizer for improving soil fertility. Compost is made as described below:


  • Fresh plant materials are collected together into a heap, or put into a pit, about half a metre deep.
  • after about two weeks, the materials in heap 1 are transferred to heap 2, while fresh materials are put in heap 1. After another two weeks or so, materials in heap 2 are transferred to heap

3, while materials in heap 1 are transferred to heap 2, and fresh materials are put in heap 1. After another two weeks, materials in heap 3 are transferred to heap 4, materials in heap 2 are transferred to heap 3 and fresh materials are put in heap 1. In this way, heaps 1, 2, 3 and 4 contain materials at various stages of decay. The materials in heap 4 are ready for application in farms. In applying compost to crops, the compost is placed around the crop stands such as yams, cocoyam, banana and maize. As rain falls on the compost, the plant foods in the compost sink into the soil. The crops absorb the substances in the compost that help the crops to grow well.

 

Chemical fertilizers

Chemical fertilizers are manufactured chemical substances. They may be in the form of a single substance or a mixture of substances. On the bag of a chemical fertilizer, its name is written, e.g. calcium phosphate. A mixed chemical fertilizer, e.g. NPK fertilizer may have numbers written on the bag, such as 10:10:10, 15:10:10, or 20:10:10. The numbers stand for the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, contained in it.


PRY 6 BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 2ND TERM E-NOTE

[mediator_tech]

Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are some of the substances that crops need to grow well for every crop, there is a type of chemical fertilizer that helps it grow best. So a farmer usually seeks information from the Ministry of Agriculture on which is the best fertilizer for a particular crop. For instance, chemical fertilizer is applied to maize twice.

The first application is made two weeks after germination. The second application is made four weeks later.

Chemical fertilizer is applied to maize plants by the ‘ring method’. A short stick is used to make a shallow hole around the maize plant. The radius of the circle is about 15 cm and the depth of the hole is about 2.5 cm. The quantity of chemical fertilizer applied to one maize seedling is about one matchbox full.

Then the hole is covered up. This method of application helps the maize seedling to absorb the chemical fertilizer very well. Only a little of the fertilizer is lost to erosion.

Chemical fertilizers

Chemical fertilizers are manufactured chemical substances. They may be in the form of a single substance or a mixture of substances. On the bag of a chemical fertilizer, its name is written, e.g. calcium phosphate. A mixed chemical fertilizer, e.g. NPK fertilizer may have numbers written on the bag, such as 10:10:10, 15:10:10, or 20:10:10. The numbers stand for the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, contained in it. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are some of the substances that crops need to grow well

Assessment & Evaluation:

  • Name the common fertilizers.
  • State the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
  • Describe how to make compost.
  • State how a poor farmer improves the yield of his crops?

 

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding

 

Answer these questions

  • Name four common fertilizers.
  • What is the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
  • Describe how to make compost.
  • How can a poor farmer improve the yield of his crops?


  • Compare the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost on the growth of maize and spinach.

WEEK 9

TOPIC: IMPROVING CROP YIELD

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • Name the common fertilizers.
  • State the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
  • State how we grow crops with compost manure. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing the instruments for planting crops. REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

 

IMPROVING CROP YIELD

Farmers like to obtain a higher yield from their farms. There are many ways in which this can be done.

To increase crop yield, we need to conserve the soil by avoiding erosion. We also need to increase soil fertility through the application of suitable fertilizers. Planting of certain crops also helps to improve the condition of the soil.

The types of crops grown in the farm include, maize, soya beans, grains, yams, cassava, vegetables, pepper, okra, cocoyam, carrot, lettuce, melon, etc.


Fertility and Crop Yield

Crop yield is the amount of crops per unit area of a particular farmland. One of the factors that affect crop yield is the level of fertility of a particular soil the farmer intends to use for farming. Naturally the soil is enriched with the amounts of nutrients from the decomposed leaves of plants and dead animals.

 

However, in the process of preparing the land for plant growing, there is the possibility for loss of soil fertility. In such a situation, there is the need for an organized (artificial) fertility in order to ensure and sustain the nutrient of the land for maximum crop yield.

 

Fertilizers are organized methods of adding substance to the soil to make it more enriched in fertility for the purpose of helping plants to grow well and for maximum crops yield. There are two classes of fertilizers. They are organic manure and chemical fertilizers.

 

Organic Manure:

This is also called natural manure. There are three types of natural manure, namely: animal (livestock) manure, green (vegetable) manure and compost manure.

 

Artificial Fertilizer:

This is obtained from inorganic a substance which is applied to the soil to improve its fertility.

Artificial fertilizer is also known as chemical fertilizer. Examples are the NPK fertilizer, Super Phosphate, Urea and lime.

Growing Crops for Family Needs

Improving crop yield is important because it would help us satisfy our needs. When crop production is improved, there will be enough food for us to eat  and more to sell for money. We therefore need to increase soil fertility through the application of suitable manure or fertilizer.


Growing Crops with Compost Manure

Compost manure contains, in the right proportions, all the food substances plants need to grow well.

 

Growing Crops with Chemical Fertilizers

Chemical fertilizer enriches the soil and helps crops to grow properly and yield harvest. Chemical fertilizer contains all food materials the soil needs as a substitute for natural nutrients which might not be of appreciable quantity and quality on the farmland. The appropriate quantity of chemical fertilizers must be followed by the farmer on application.

Growing Crops without Manure or Chemical Fertilizer Crops without natural manure or chemical fertilizers:

(i) May grow very unhealthy. (ij) May grow abnormally.

  • May not yield maximally.
  • May be defenseless against diseases.
  • May not grow fast.



Assessment & Evaluation:

  • Name the common fertilizers.
  • State the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
  • State how we grow crops with compost manure.

 

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding

 

WEEK 10

TOPIC: THE HUMAN BODY (BLOOD CIRCULATION)

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: AT THE END OF THE LESSON, PUPILS SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

  • Define human heart
  • State the functions of the heart
  • Mention the types of blood circulation INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing the human heart REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes. CONTENT OF THE LESSON

The Human Heart

The heart is the muscular organ that pumps blood round the body. It contains four chambers namely:

  • Right auricle
  • Left auricle (Hi) Right ventricle

(iv) Left ventricle


The major difference between the auricles and the ventricles is that the walls of the ventricles are thicker and more muscular than those of the auricles.

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BASIC TECHNOLOGY JSS 1 SECOND TERM EXAMINATION

Functions of the Heart

The functions of the heart include the following:

(j) The major function of the heart is to pump blood to all parts of the body.

(ii) It also keeps blood in continuous flow round the body.

 

Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are tubes through which blood moves round the body. These vessels are; arteries, veins, and capillaries and they have various functions in the body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood towards the heart.

 

Capillaries join arteries to the veins.

  • Arteries: These are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. That is, blood flows from the heart to all parts of the body through arteries.


  • Veins: These are blood vessels that carry blood from other parts of the body to the heart.


  • Capillaries: They are the tiny network of blood vessels that connect the veins to the arteries. They carry blood between arteries and veins.

 

Blood Circulation

The circulatory system is the route by which blood moves round the body. It is made up of the heart blood, and blood Vessels.

Functions of the blood circulatory system

The blood circulatory system in the human body has several functions. They are as follows:

Transport

  • The blood system carries oxygen, absorbed into the blood in the lungs, to all the living cells in all parts of the body.
  • The blood system carries food substances, after digestion, from the alimentary canal to all the living cells in the body.
  • The blood system carries the white blood corpuscles to all parts of the body where they defend the body against infection.
  • The blood system carries antibodies all round the body. The antibodies defend the body against infection.
  • The blood system carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, urea, water and excess salts from living cells where they are produced to the parts of the body, such as the lungs and kidneys where they are removed.

Defense of the body against infection

When disease-causing organisms enter the human body, the white blood cells attack and swallow them, or produce chemicals called antibodies that kill the disease-causing organisms.

Blood clotting

By clotting at the point of an injury, the blood protects the body against further loss of blood.

Distribution of heat

Some parts of the body, e.g. the muscles produce more heat than others. The blood circulatory system distributes heat evenly throughout the body.

There are two types of blood circulation in the body. These are: Pulmonary circulation and Systemic circulation.


  • Pulmonary Circulation· This is one in which blood flows from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
  • Systemic Circulation: This is one in which blood is pumped from the heart to the other parts of the body and back to the heart.

 

The right auricle and ventricle contains blood with less oxygen and more scarbon dioxide. The left auricle and ventricle contains blood with more oxygen that comes from the lungs.

 

The heart is filled with blood, as a result of the relaxation of the involuntary muscles of the heart called cardiac muscle. When the muscles of the heart contract, it (the heart) pumps blood out through the right and left ventricles into the pulmonary arteries and aorta respectively.

The blood in the pulmonary arteries goes to the lungs and the blood in the aorta goes to other parts of the body.

 

The presence of valves prevent the blood from flowing back to the heart.: When the heart is relaxed, blood returns to the heart from the veins through vena-cava to the right auricles and through the pulmonary veins to the left auricles. The blood that moves into the body cells is more oxygenated because the blood flows by the indication of the arrows.

Functions of the arteries and veins

The arteries carry blood away from the heart and the veins carry blood towards the heart.

Functions of the capillary blood vessels

If blood were to flow all the time within the blood vessels, it would not be of much use to the body. The capillaries have thin walls through which the liquid part of the blood can diffuse out of the blood vessels to reach the living cells in the various organs. In this way, the capillaries make it possible for the cells of the body to be supplied with food, water, oxygen and all other essentials. They are also useful in the removal of waste products from the cells

Differences between arteries and veins

Arteries Veins

  • They carry blood away from the heart. They carry blood towards the heart.


  • They have thick elastic walls. They have thin, not very elastic walls.
  • They carry blood that contain they carry blood in which

(except the pulmonary vein) oxygen (except the pulmonary oxygen has been used up artery

  • Pressure of blood in the vessels is high Pressure of blood in the vessels is low.


  • They do not have valves. They have valves to prevent the back-flow of blood.
  • Arteries are located deeper in the Veins are located nearer the flesh surface of the body than arteries. than veins.

7 Pulse is detectable. Pulse is usually not detectable.

Assessment & Evaluation:

  • Define human heart
  • State the functions of the heart
  • Mention the types of blood circulation

(WRAP-UP CONCLUSION)

Teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding

Answer these questions

  • List the things that make up the human blood.
  • Name the four chambers that make up the human heart.
  • Describe the paths along which blood circulates round the human body.
  • Describe the functions of the human heart.
  • State four differences between arteries and veins.
  • Explain the importance of blood capillaries.
  • Describe the functions of the blood circulatory system.

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