Basic Science and Technology
Primary 6/ Basic 6
Previous lesson :
The pupils have previous knowledge of Living and Non-living Things
Growing Crops and Improving Crops Yields
Specific Behavioural objectives :
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- define fertilizer
- give examples of fertilizer
- define manure
- list examples of manure
- explain the proper use of fertilizer
Instructional Materials :
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching :
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
Reference Materials :
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Content Development :
Improving crop yield
There are several ways by which farmers can improve their crop yield. Some
of these are: planting high-yielding varieties, planting on fertile soil, planting
at the right time (such as early in the rainy season), applying fertilizers, and
controlling weeds, pests and crop diseases.
A fertilizer is a substance which is added to the soil to make crops grow well.
There are two main groups of fertilizers: manure and chemical fertilizers.
Manure is waste matter from plants and animals. Examples of manure are
cow dung, pig dung, goat and sheep dung, chicken droppings, farmyard
manure and compost.
Compost is a mixture of decayed plant materials which is used as a fertilizer
for improving soil fertility.
Chemical fertilizers are manufactured chemical substances. They may be in
the form of a single substance or a mixture of substances. On the bag of a
chemical fertilizer, its name is written, e.g. calcium phosphate. A mixed
chemical fertilizer, e.g. NPK fertilizer may have numbers written on the bag,
such as 10:10:10, 15:10:10, or 20:10:10. The numbers stand for the percentage
of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, contained in it.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are some of the substances that crops
need to grow well for every crop, there is a type of chemical fertilizer that
helps it grow best. So a farmer usually seeks information from the Ministry of
Agriculture on which is the best fertilizer for a particular crop. For instance,
chemical fertilizer is applied to maize twice.
The first application is made two weeks after germination. The second
application is made four weeks later.
Chemical fertilizer is applied to maize plants by the ‘ring method’. A short
stick is used to make a shallow hole around the maize plant. The radius of the
circle is about 15 cm and the depth of the hole is about 2.5 cm.
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.
1. Name four common fertilizers.
2. State the difference between manure and a chemical fertilizer?
3. Describe how to make compost.
4. State how a poor farmer improves the yield of his crops?
Prepare for the next lesson by reading about the human circulatory system
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