Basic Science and Technology
Primary 6/ Basic 6
Previous lesson :
The pupils have previous knowledge of Our Earth and Sky
The Earth’s Movement
Specific Behavioural objectives :
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to
- explain the two types of earth’s movements
- say the effects of earth’s movement as they relate to day and night
- define eclipse
- mention the types of eclipses
- Explain the reasons for different time zones on earth
Instructional Materials :
- Wall charts
- Related Online Video
- Flash Cards
Methods of Teaching :
- Class Discussion
- Group Discussion
- Asking Questions
- Role Modelling
- Role Delegation
Reference Materials :
- Scheme of Work
- Online Information
- 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
Content Development :
The study of the universe has led to the discovery of the planets, the stars, the
gases and other things. The earth is one of the nine planets of the solar system.
It is the planet in which life exist. It consists of three parts and it is spherical
Rotation of the Earth On Its Axis
The earth rotates from the West to the East as if it is being turned on an
imaginary line passing through its centre.
This imaginary line is called the
This rotation of the earth about its axis causes day and night.
It was discovered that when the earth rotates, since it is spherical, only one
half of it faces the sun, and it is day time in some countries on that part of the
earth. The other side which does not receive the light from the sun, at that
time, is dark and it is night time in such places or countries The earth makes one’
complete rotation on its axis in twenty-four hours. That is why we have day and night
Revolution of the Earth Round the Sun
At the same time as the earth rotates on its axis, it also revolves round the sun.
The movement of the earth round the sun is called the revolution of the earth.
As mentioned earlier, the movement of the earth round the sun is called the
revolution of the earth.
The earth revolves round the sun in about 365 days or in one year. The path
of the earth round the sun is not a circle. It is a (geometrical) shape called an
The Effect of the Revolution of the Earth
The revolution of the earth round the sun makes it possible for some parts of
the earth to receive more sunlight than other parts at a given time. There are
two major seasons in Nigeria namely: wet season and dry season. Between the
months of October and February, the weather is very hot and dry. This is
called the dry season. This means that a large amount of the sun’s rays
reaches Nigeria during this period of the earth’s Revolution.
Between the months of March and September, there is a lot of rainfall. The
weather is cooler and windy. This is the wet season. It is noteworthy that
between the months of December and February, there is a special period
during the dry season, when the weather is hot and dry during the day, yet it
is very cold at night and in the early mornings. This is the harmattan period.
All these changes in the seasons are caused by the revolution of the earth
round the sun. This revolution of the earth round the sun is from East to
The Cardinal Points
The earth is divided into four cardinal points or main bearings on a compass.
These are: East, West, North and South. The compass is used to find
directions based on these points.
An eclipse simple means to obstruct or to cover or block.
There are two types of eclipses: an eclipse of the sun and an eclipse of the moon
Eclipse of the Moon
An eclipse of the moon occurs when the earth comes in between the sun and
With the candle light representing the sun, the football representing the earth
and the tennis or ping pong ball representing the moon, draw a diagram to
show the eclipse of the moon.
The solar system comprises the sun and all the bodies (planets, satellites and
other objects) moving round it.
There are nine planets which revolve round-the sun. Each planet has its own
path. The planets are: (i) Mercury, (ii) Venus, (iii) Earth, (iv) Mars, (v)
Jupiter, (vi) Saturn, (vii) Uranus, (viii) Neptune and (ix) Pluto.
Note: Pluto is much smaller than any of the official planets and now classified
as a’ dwarf planet’.
The path along which each planet moves round the sun is called its orbit. We
should note that the sun is a star, it produces light. Stars are objects in space,
which produce light.
The planets are not stars, so they do not produce light like the sun. They are
seen at night because they reflect light from the sun. The planets may appear
like bright stars to us at night because they are much nearer to us than any
star. Any bright object in the sky that does not twinkle at night is a planet.
The distance of the earth from the sun is about 150 million kilometres and as
we already know, it travels round the sun in 365 days. It also shows the time it takes each
planet to travel round the sun and the number of moons the planet has.
We have learnt that the moon moves round the earth. The moon is therefore a
satellite of the earth. he bodies at move around the planets are called satellites.
Scientists have also constructed objects which move round the earth; these
objects are called artificial satellites. These satellites receive radio and
television messages from one part of the world and convey them to another
part of the world. Some satellites take very accurate pictures of locations and
objects on the earth. They normally travel from the West to the East, and
appear as tiny stars at night.
The sun is a star and it is about 150 million kilometers away from our earth.
Stars twinkle and because they are far away, they look like tiny points of light.
The nearest star to the earth is forty -three million kilometres away. Look at
the sky at night. You might notice some groups of stars that show very clearly.
These stars can be seen more easily in the tropics, .in late evening by months
of January and February and in the early morning of September and
October. They can also be seen clearly at midnight.
A scientist who studies heavenly bodies which includes stars is called an
astronomer. Astronomers use special equipment like telescopes to observe
If you observed the sky carefully you would see that the stars are not all the
same colour. The hottest ones like Rigel appear blue. Those that are not so hot
appear white, while cooler stars look yellow. The coolest stars like Betelguse
seem to have a red Colour.
The topic is presented step by step
The class teacher revises the previous topics
He introduces the new topic
The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise
The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.
The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.
He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.
1 . What is the meaning of eclipse
2. What is gravity
3. Mention two types of eclipse
4, What is the the meaning of earth’s rotational movement
5. What causes day and night
6. What is it that when a stone is thrown up , it will come back to earth . mention the force that is responsible for this
Prepare for the next lesson by reading about
1. The common names of fertilizers.
2. State the difference between manure and chemical fertilizer