Verb Phrases, Sickle Cell Disease, Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Poultry) and Vowel sounds /е/, /ʌ/, /ɜ:/, /ə/ with Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Formats).
Subject: English Grammar
Class: SS 1
Term: First Term
Week: Week 5
Speech Work: Vowel sounds /е/, /ʌ/, /ɜ:/, /ə/
Comprehension: Sickle Cell Disease
Vocabulary Development (Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Poultry)
Structure: Phrase: Verb Phrases.
Writing Skills: Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Formats).
ASPECT: Speech Work
TOPIC: Vowel sounds: /е/, /ʌ/, /ɜ: /, /ə/
The Vowel Sound /e/:
This is a short, front, half close, spread vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the front of the tongue briefly at a position mid-way towards the close region and by keeping the lips spread. The phonetic symbol of the sound represents the sound in the table below in their respective words.
|a as in the following||any, many, Thames, ate, etc.|
|ai as in||said, etc.|
|e as in||beg, tennis, better, met, red, set, bell, peg, pen, net, etc.|
|ea as in||zealot, dead, instead, measure, already, breath, etc.|
|ei as in||leisure, heifer, Leicester, etc.|
|eo as in||leopard, jeopardy, Leonard, Geoffrey, etc.|
|ie as in||friend, etc.|
|ieu as in||Lieutenant, etc.|
|u as in||bury, Lansbury, etc.|
|ue as in||guess, guest, guerrilla, etc.|
This is a short central, half open, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue briefly in apposition mid-way and by keeping the lips neutral. The phonetic symbols of the sound are listed in the table below with their respective word examples.
|a as in||Qatar, etc.|
|o as in||colour, thorough, ton, one, love, oven, son, etc.|
|oe as in||does, etc.|
|oo as in||flood, blood, etc.|
|ou as in||young, enough, touch, trouble, tough, etc.|
|u as in||such, rub, nut, run, judge, must, punish, sun, etc.|
Vowel /ɜ: /
This is a long, central, half close, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue at a position mid-way toward the close region and keeping the lips neutral. The phonetic symbol of the sound are listed in the table below with their respective word examples.
|ear as in||learn, early, earn, dearth, pearl, earth, search, etc.|
|er/err as in||tertiary, ergo, herb, insert, mercury, verb, her, perch, term, verb, termite, etc.|
|eur as in||poseur, connoisseur, masseur, longueur, etc.|
|ere as in||were, etc.|
|ir as in||stir, dirt, firm, swirl, sir, birth, irk, virgin, etc.|
|or as in||worse, worst, worth, worsted, world, worm, etc.|
|our as in||journal, scourge, courtesy, courteous, journey, etc.|
|ur/urr as in||curb, turn, blur, gurgle, burp, spur, turkey, etc|
|yr as in||myrtle, myrmidon, etc.|
This is a short, central, half open, neutral vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the centre of the tongue briefly at a position between the half close and half open levels and by keeping the lips neutral. This vowel sound is referred to as the ‘schwa’ (pronounced /ʃwa :/). The following are the spelling symbols:
“a” as in ago
“o” as in of (weak form)
“e” as in student
“u” as in but (weak form)
“or” as in doctor
“er” as in mother
“re” as in centre
- Give five phonetic denotations of each of the sounds and their word examples.
- Write five word examples on each of the sounds.
TOPIC: “Sickle Cell Disease”.
What is sickle cell disease (SCD)?
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with SCD have abnormal hemoglobin, which causes their red blood cells to be curved and stiff. These unusual red blood cells can block blood flow and cause pain and other serious problems such as organ damage, anemia, and infections.
What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?
The most common symptom of SCD is pain, which can range from mild to severe. Other symptoms include fatigue, fever, and anemia. Some people with SCD also have joint pain, eye problems, and difficulties with breathing.
What causes sickle cell disease?
SCD is caused by an abnormal hemoglobin gene. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body’s tissues. The abnormal hemoglobin gene is passed down from parents to children. If both parents have the abnormal gene, there is a 25% chance their child will have SCD.
How is sickle cell disease diagnosed?
SCD can be diagnosed with a blood test. This test looks for abnormal hemoglobin in the blood.
How is sickle cell disease treated?
There is no cure for SCD, but treatments can help relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include pain medication, hydration, and blood transfusions. Some people with SCD may also need surgery.
What are the complications of sickle cell disease?
SCD can cause a number of complications such as anemia, infections, organ damage, and strokes. These complications can be serious and even life-threatening.
What is the prognosis for people with sickle cell disease?
The life expectancy for people with SCD has increased in recent years due to improvements in treatment. However, SCD is still a serious condition and can cause complications that are potentially fatal.
1. What is sickle cell disease?
2. What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?
3. What causes sickle cell disease?
4. How is sickle cell disease diagnosed?
5. How is sickle cell disease treated?
6. What are the complications of sickle cell disease?
7. What is the prognosis for people with sickle cell disease?
8. How does sickle cell disease affect red blood cells?
9. What are the consequences of having abnormal hemoglobin?
10. Can anything be done to prevent sickle cell disease?
1. Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells.
2. Symptoms of sickle cell disease include pain, fatigue, fever, and anemia.
3. Sickle cell disease is caused by an abnormal hemoglobin gene.
4. Sickle cell disease can be diagnosed with a blood test.
5. There is no cure for sickle cell disease, but treatments can help relieve symptoms and prevent complications.
6. Complications of sickle cell disease include anemia, infections, organ damage, and strokes.
7. The life expectancy for people with sickle cell disease has increased in recent years due to improvements in treatment. However, sickle cell disease is still a serious condition and can cause complications that are potentially fatal.
8. People with sickle cell disease have abnormal hemoglobin, which causes their red blood cells to be curved and stiff.
9. The abnormal hemoglobin gene can cause a number of complications such as anemia, infections, organ damage, and strokes.
10. There is no cure for sickle cell disease, but treatments can help relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Some people with sickle cell disease may also need surgery.
Class Activity: Students should be made to read the passage before answering questions on it.
ASPECT: Vocabulary Development
TOPIC: Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Poultry)
What is Poultry?
Poultry is a domesticated fowl, typically a chicken, turkey, duck or goose, kept by humans for their eggs, meat or feathers.
Today, there are more chickens in the world than any other bird. Chickens are kept by humans around the world and are used for their meat and eggs. In some areas, chickens are also used for fighting.
Poultry is usually considered to be a subcategory of the domesticated fowl category which includes all other birds kept by humans, such as pigeons, doves, and ducks. However, some experts consider poultry to be a separate category from domesticated fowl.
The term “poultry” comes from the French word poulet, which means chicken. It is believed that the term was first used in the 18th century.
Poultry can be divided into two main types: meat birds and egg-laying birds. The most common type of poultry kept by humans is chickens, although ducks, geese, and turkeys are also popular.
Chickens are the most common type of poultry in the world. They are kept by humans for their meat and eggs. Chickens typically weigh between 2 and 4 kg (4.4 and 8.8 lb).
Ducks, geese, and turkeys are also popular types of poultry. These birds are usually larger than chickens, with ducks and geese typically weighing between 4 and 6 kg (8.8 and 13.2 lb), and turkeys typically weighing between 6 and 8 kg (13.2 and 17.6 lb).
Poultry can be raised in a variety of ways, including: on farms, in backyards, or in cities. Chickens are the most commonly raised poultry bird, with over 20 billion chickens being raised each year worldwide. Duck, goose, and turkey production is much lower, with around 1 billion ducks, 300 million geese, and 250 million turkeys being raised each year worldwide.
1. What is poultry?
2. What are the most common types of poultry?
3. Why are chickens the most commonly raised poultry bird?
4. How many chickens are raised each year worldwide?
5. What are ducks, geese, and turkeys typically used for?
6. How are poultry birds typically raised?
7. What is the difference between domesticated fowl and poultry?
8. Where does the term “poultry” come from?
9. How can poultry be divided into two main types?
10. What are the benefits of raising poultry birds?
1. poultry is a domesticated fowl, typically a chicken, turkey, duck, or goose, kept by humans for their eggs, meat, or feathers.
2. The most common types of poultry are chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys.
3. Chickens are the most commonly raised poultry birds because they are typically smaller and easier to manage than other poultry birds.
4. Over 20 billion chickens are raised worldwide each year.
5. Ducks, geese, and turkeys are typically used for their meat, eggs, or feathers.
6. Poultry birds can be raised in a variety of ways, including on farms, in backyards, or in cities.
7. The difference between domesticated fowl and poultry is that poultry is typically considered to be a subcategory of the domesticated fowl category, which includes all other birds kept by humans.
8. The term “poultry” comes from the French word poulet, which means chicken.
9. Poultry can be divided into two main types: meat birds and egg-laying birds.
10. Some benefits of raising poultry include providing a source of food (meat and eggs) and income (through the sale of meat, eggs, and feathers). Poultry can also be used for pest control or as pets.
A place where poultry are reared and kept; an extensive establishment for the breeding and fattening of poultry and the commercial production of eggs.
The following are lists of words related to poultry:
CLASS ACTIVITY: Students should be made to find the meanings of these words with the aid of their dictionaries.
EVALUATION: Write ten sentences using any ten from the list of the registered words.
|liveability||hatch of fertile||embryo||gizzard|
|addled||intensive system||aviary system||free range housing|
TOPIC: Phrase: Verb Phrase
- Definition of verb phrase
- The structures of verb phrase
- The Functions of verb phrase
Definition of Verb Phrase:
The verb phrase (VP) consists of a verb as the head, accompanied by its adjunct or auxiliary. Examples of verb phrase: ‘may do’, ‘has done’, ‘is doing’, ‘may have done’, ‘may be doing’, ‘may have been doing’.
The structure of verb phrase
The typical structure of the verb phrase consists of a main verb preceded optionally by a maximum of auxiliary verbs. Examples:
|aux 1||aux 2||aux 3||aux 4 (passive)||main verb|
Forms of Verbs: Irregular Verbs
|Base form (v)||3rd person (v-s)||Past v-ed1||Part. v-ed2||Pres part. v-ing|
|Base form (v)||3rd person (v-s)||Past v-ed1||Part. v-ed2||Pres part. ving|
|Base form (v)||3rd person (v-s)||Past v-ed1||Part. v-ed2||Pres part. ving|
|be||am, is, are||was, were||been||being|
Note that regular verbs add‘d’ or ‘-ed’ to their unchanged based to form the past tense but irregular verbs do not.
Functions of verb phrase
The verb phrase (VP) has the function of a predicate in the sentence.
The predicate may be defined as part of the sentence which ascribes an action, a state, or a quality to the subject.
The predicate necessarily includes a verb in a finites (personal) mood.
The verb phrase is a grammatical unit that functions as the verb in a sentence. The verb phrase consists of the main verb and any auxiliary verbs. The main verb is the most important verb in the sentence, and it determines the tense of the sentence. Auxiliary verbs help to express the mood or attitude of the speaker.
The main verb in a sentence is the verb that expresses the action or state of being of the subject. The main verb is also known as the lexical verb or the principal verb. Auxiliary verbs are verbs that help to express the mood or attitude of the speaker. Auxiliary verbs are also known as helper verbs.
- What is verb phrase?
- What is the function of verb phrase in a sentence?
- What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs?
ASPECT: Writing Skills:
TOPIC: Letter writing-Informal letter (Formats)
CONTENT: Informal letter
An informal letter is a friendly and personal letter. Informal letters are usually sent to:
- A friend
- A colleague at work;
- A pen friend;
- A well-wisher; and
- Family members within the same age bracket.
Features of an informal letter
A good informal letter must have the following features:
(1). Address: A good informal letter must have a well- written address. The address is written in small letters and in a block form. An address must contain a date. Any of the following addresses could be used:
- Home address;
- School address, and
- Postal address.
|Home address:||15, John Mohammed Street,|
|Kesting Housing Estate,|
|28th May, 2018.|
|School address:||Jenny Schools,|
|No. 1 Jenny Street,|
|2nd June, 2018.|
|Postal address:||P.O. Box 1053,|
|Japo Post Office,|
(2). Salutation: After the address comes the salutation. The salutation is always ‘Dear ‘plus the first name of the person you are writing to. For example:
My dearest Ochuko,
NOTE: “Dear friend” is not acceptable.
(3). Introduction: The introduction comes after the salutation. In this section, you introduce what you are writing on. It is in this section that the recipient will know what you are writing on. The introduction can be in form of a reference to a previous letter written or received by the writer. It is in the introduction that you set the pace for what you want to write. Your introduction should not be more than one paragraph.
(4). Body: The body of the letter begins in the second paragraph. This is where you discuss extensively what you are writing on. This is the heart of your letter and it must be well- written. You are to determine the number of paragraphs. This depends on what you are asked to write on.
(5). Conclusion: This section is where you summarize what you have written in the body of the letter. It should not be more than one paragraph.
(6). Subscript: For an informal letter, the appropriate subscript is:
The subscript is followed by a comma and the writer’s first name only.
NOTE: There is no apostrophe before the ‘s’ or after the ‘s’ in the subscript.
Language and tone of an informal letter:
- The language and tone of an informal letter is relaxed and flexible because it is a friendly letter.
- The grammatical rules are relaxed and the writers are free to play with words. However, good English must be written.
- An informal letter must be conversational. So, the following abbreviations or short forms are allowed: I’ll, I’ve, we’ve, you’ve, etc.
- Slang and colloquial expressions are tolerated.
- Generally, the tone must be friendly.
INFORMAL LETTER FORMAT
|No. 1 Jenny Street,|
|Delta State. (Address)|
|2nd June, 2018. (Date)|
|Dear Jane, (Salutation)|
|Quite an age….. (Introductory Paragraph)|
|As they………(Body of the letter in paragraphs)|
|My regards to………. (Conclusion)|
|Yours sincerely, (Subscript)|
|James. (First name only)|
Language and tone of an informal letter:
In an informal letter, you can be more relaxed in your language and tone. You might use contractions (I’m, we’re) and colloquialisms (gonna, gotta, kind of, a lot). Informal letters often close with thanks or best wishes.
Here are some examples of language and tone you might use in an informal letter:
I hope you’re doing well! It’s been a while since we’ve talked. I’m sorry for not keeping in touch better. I’ve been really busy with work and life in general. But I’ve been thinking about you a lot recently and I wanted to reach out.
I’m really sorry to hear about your (problem). I know how tough that must be for you. If there’s anything I can do to help, please let me know. I’m here for you if you need to talk.
I hope you’re doing OK. Keep me updated.
- What is an informal letter?
- Write the format of an informal letter.
Underline the verb phrase in each of the following sentences
- He has been waiting for you since yesterday.
- Sola is writing a book.
- Having been scolded before, he became more cautious
- We will be stopping halfway on the journey to the city.
- The book had been written before the advent of technology.
- Our projects have been developing quite slowly because of lack of funding.
- Shops will have started their sales by next week.
- It was clear that she had been contemplating leaving.
- He shall be punished for this, if there’s any justice.
- The dog is sleeping in the cage.
1. What is a verb phrase?
2. What are the functions of a verb phrase?
3. How is a verb phrase different from a simple verb?
4. What are the different types of verb phrases?
5. How do you form a verb phrase?
6. What words can go in a verb phrase?
7. How do you use a verb phrase in a sentence?
8. What are some common errors with verb phrases?
9. How can you improve your use of verb phrases?
10. What resources are available to help you learn more about verb phrases?