Noun: The Structure of Noun Phrase. Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Introduction). Vowel sounds /ͻ/,/ͻ:/,/u/,/u:/

Subject : English Grammar

Class : SS 1

Term : First Term

Week : Week 4

Topics :

Speech Work: Vowel sounds /ͻ/,/ͻ:/,/u/,/u:/

Comprehension/Summary: Identifying the topic sentence in a passage

Vocabulary Development (Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Livestock)

Structure: Noun: The Structure of Noun Phrase.

Writing Skills: Letter Writing: Informal Letter (Introduction).



TOPIC:  Vowels /ͻ/, /ͻ:/

Introduction: The vowels: /ͻ/ and /ͻ:/ are pure vowels.  The difference between them is that /ͻ/ is short in its manner of articulation whereas /ͻ:/ is long. However, both sounds are back vowels realised with the vocal organ (lips) rounded.

Description of the Vowel /ͻ/: This is a short, back, open rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue briefly at the bottom of the mouth and by keeping the lips rounded.

Features of the vowel /ͻ/

ua a au e o ou ow
quality was laurel en masse cock cough knowledge
squander want sausage en route cloth
squash sallet austerity rendezvous moth
squat swallow because entr’acte doll
quantity swamp austria entrepreneur dog


Description of the vowel :/: This is a long, back, half open, rounded vowel sound. It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue for some time at a position mid-way, towards the open region and by keeping the lips rounded.

Features of the vowel :/

a ar au augh aw
salt war fraud haughty yawn
chalk ward gaul caught draw
paltry warm fault daughter flaw
call thwart clause naught saw
install swarm audible taught hawk

More Examples:

o oa or oor ore ough our uar
glory roar more floor ore thought court quarter
story oar cord door sore sought pour
oral boar lord before nought
glorify broad fork gored
coarse mentor ignore


/ͻ/ /ͻ:/
pot port
cot court
hot halt
got gord
pock pork


EVALUATION: Transcribe the following words to phonetic symbols.

  • taught
  • slaughter
  • drawer
  •  norm
  •  course


TOPIC: Vowel sounds / u / and /u: /


  1. Description of the vowels / u / and /u: /
  2. Features of the vowels
  3. Contrast of the sounds


Introduction: Both / u / and /u: / are back rounded vowels. In the same vein they are pure vowels.

Description of the vowel /u /: This is a short, back, half- close rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping the back of the tongue briefly at a position mid-way towards the close region and by keeping the lips rounded

Occurrence of the sound in words

o oo ou u
wolf took courier cuckoo
woman cook could sugar
bosom foot should pudding
wood would

Description of the vowel /u:/: This is a long, back, close, rounded vowel sound.  It is produced by keeping at the back of the tongue for some time at a position very close to the hard palate and by keeping the lips rounded.

Occurrence of the sound in words

eau eu ew iew ieu o wo uo
beautify feud drew view adieu lose two fluor
neutral threw womb
pneumatic crew tomb
pseudonym new do
rheum stew

More Examples

oe eu oo ou ough u ue ui
shoe manoeuvre boot rouge through tune revenue cruise
whoed soon coup truth queue suitable
canoe smooth stoup flute glue lawsuit
zoo troup educate value altruism
broom wound use virtue bruise


/u/ /u:/
foot food
pull pool
hook hoot
full fool


ACTIVITY: Do a phonetic transcription of the following words

  1. coupler
  2. mushroom
  3. cushion
  4. plywood
  5. threw


ASPECT: Comprehension/Summary

TOPIC:Identifying the topic sentence in a passage


  1. Definition of Summary
  2. Keys to summary writing
  3. How to determine the topic sentence

What is a summary?

Summary writing is an act of expressing ones thought in a brief and clear manner. It tests the ability to read, digest and produce some relevant facts as required by the examiner.

Key to summary writing

One finds it easier to handle a passage if one understands how the passage is organized. Every passage has a particular pattern, an order in which ideas are organized to help the reader to understand easily.

Summary passages can take any of the following patterns:

  1. Topic Sentence Pattern
  2. Section-Based Pattern
  3. Listing Pattern
  4. Mixed Pattern
  5. Suggestive Pattern


How to determine the topic sentence

What is a topic sentence?

Topic sentence is the sentence in a summary passage which contains the main point the writer is marking in a particular paragraph. All other sentences in the paragraph either explain the point in the topic sentence or give examples.

A topic sentence can either be in form of question or statement. Ability to recognise the topic sentence depends on the understanding that it serves the main point in the paragraph while other sentences either explain the point in the topic sentence or give examples.


Let us consider the following paragraph

Sprains are injuries to the ligaments which hold the joints together. Sprains occur when the ligaments are overstretched. The joints most frequently sprained are the wrists and ankles.

The passage above centres on a specific type of injury called ‘sprains’. Thus, the topic of the passage is ‘sprains’



  1. What is a topic sentence?
  2. Briefly explain how to identify a topic sentence in a given passage.


ASPECT: Vocabulary Development

TOPIC: Words associated with Animal Husbandry (Livestock)

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fibre, and labour.  The term is often used to refer solely to those raised for food, and sometimes only farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goat.

The words listed below are related to livestock farming:

grazing breeding rearing pen cattle pen
forage methane feral rooster stable
rodeo nomad raiding tinned cage
pasture wool tending rinderpest encage
manure ranch nomadic cowherd raise
dairy bovine pastoral buck milkmaid
rancher hoof annuity feed mill feed
herder veal fodder tame shepherd


  1. What is livestock?
  2. With the use of dictionary, find the meaning of the following words: bovine, ranch, rinderpest, stable, annuity, rodeo, forage, fodder, feral and wool.



TOPIC: Noun: The Structure of Noun Phrase


  1. Definition of Noun and functions
  2. Definition of Noun Phrase
  3. The structures of Noun Phrase
  4. The Functions of Noun Phrase


What is a noun?

A noun is a naming word. It is used to refer to a person, thing or quality.



  1. Subject of the verb. The subject performs the action of the verb and comes before the verb. Examples: Oluate banana yesterday.
  2. Direct Object of a verb .The direct object receives the action of the verb. Example: The driver drove a car.
  3. Indirect Object of the verb. The indirect object always answers the question ‘for/to whom’. Example: The driver drove the car to Lagos.
  4. Subject Complement. The noun here completes the first noun earlier mentioned in the same sentence. Example: Jane is my friend.
  5. Object Complement: The object complement completes the object in the sentence it is the same object. Example: They declared him a winner.
  6. Complement of a Preposition .This is required to form prepositional phrase. Example: She put the food on the table.
  7. Qualifier of another noun .In this area noun functions like an adjective. Example: I will travel during Christmas holiday
  8. Appositive: This is when a noun stands beside another noun to mean the same thing or the same person. Example: The President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is here.


What is a Phrase?

A phrase is a group of words which does not have a finite verb and does not make complete sense. A finite verb has subject, shows agreement and tense.

Types of phrases: The following are types of phrases:

  1. Noun phrase (headed by a noun) Examples: a boy, the student, some people, etc.
  2. Verb phrase (headed by a verb) Examples: smokes heavily, to come, would visit, etc.
  3. Adverb phrase (headed by adverb) Examples: in time, in vain, on purpose, by all means, etc.
  4. Preposition phrases (governed by preposition) Examples: in the garden, from the moon, by him, etc.
  5. Infinitive phrase (formed by placing “to” before the root verb Examples: to come, to play, to visit, etc.


Definition of Noun Phrase

A noun phrase, also called anominal phrase, is a group of related words in which the main word is a noun and which functions like a noun in a sentence or clause. It is a noun or a group of words headed by a noun that can substitute for a noun in a sentence.

Examples: a blue car…

the principal…

the most dreadful road accident…

a terrible storm…

1. Determiner
+ Noun
(Det + N)
those books
2. Pre-modifier
+ Noun
(Pre-mod + N
popular books
3. Determiner
+ Pre-modifier
+ Noun
(Det + Pre-mod + N)
popular books
4. Noun
+ Post-modifier
on English
(N + Post-mod)
books on
English language
5. Determiner
+ Noun
+ Post-modifier
on English
(Det + N + Post-mod)
some books on
English language
6. Pre-modifier
+ Noun
on English
(Pre-mod + N
+ Post-mod)
popular books
on English
7. Determiner
+ pre-modifier
+       Noun       +
on English
(Det + Pre-mod +
N + Post-mod)
[Some popular books
on English Language]



  1. Define noun phrase.
  2. State these structures of noun phrase in words:

(i) Det + N

(ii) Det + N + post-mod

(iii) Pre-mod + N + post-mod


Functions of Noun Phrase

Noun phrase performs the following functions in the sentence:

(1). Noun Phrase as Subject: This occurs when a noun or noun phrase precedes the verb, and in some situations, is tied to the verb by an agreement of form.


  1. A good boy deserves favour.
  2. The most dreadful road accident has happened.
  3. A terrible storm is forecast.

(2). Noun Phrase as direct object (DO): A noun phrase follows a transitive verb.


  1. Okoro bought the book.
  2. We have some interesting new neighbours.
  3. I met a very charming woman at the party.

(3). Noun Phrase as indirect object (IO): If two nouns follow a transitive verb, one denoting the receiver and the other what was received. The first receiver is an indirect object.


  1. He told Olu Brown the story.
  2. He gave the committee the report.

(4). Noun phrase as object complement: If a transitive verb is followed by two nouns one indicating what was affected or altered and the other indicating the result of the alteration, it is an object complement.


  1. We elected Femi a prefect.
  2. Many of us considered her the best.


(5). Noun phrase as Subject complement: A single noun occurring to the right of the verb and referring to the person or thing as the subject is the subject complement.


  1. Haruna is
  2. Odo became a doctor.

(6). Noun phrase object of preposition: A single noun ‘linked’ to some other element in a sentence by means of a preposition (for example in, on, to from, by of ,under), and immediately following the preposition, is the object of that preposition.


  1. The trader brought his money to the bank.
  2. The box of chocolate is intended for your children.

(7). Noun phrase as appositives: If two nouns occur together and the second could substitute for the first, the second is called an appositive.


  1. Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, the president visits Enugu.
  2. Okon, the driver is reliable.



  1. What is a noun phrase?
  2. State five functions of noun phrase in a sentence.


ASPECT: Writing Skills

SUB-TOPIC: Letter Writing – Informal Letter (Introduction)


  1. Meaning of Informal Letter
  2. Features of an Informal Letter
  3. Format for informal Letter
  4. Example of Informal Letter.


Meaning of Informal Letter

The informal letter is a personal or private letter.  It is a letter written to a brother, friend, sister, parent, or any close relation.  There is some familiarity and intimacy in the language. This means that the writer can employ:

  1. Conversational method.
  2. Contraction of words.
  3. Colloquial expression,
  4. Proverbs

Whatever expression that will create intimacy is permitted in informal letter.


Features of Informal Letter

Informal letter features include:

(a) Address written at the top right corner of the writing pad.

(b) The Date: This is written immediately below the address. Avoid writing your date in any of the following forms.

  1. 11/2/2017
  2. 11/2/17
  3. 11-2-2017
  4. 11th of January, 2017.
  5. 11th January, 2017.

The date has to be properly written as: 11th March, 2017.

(c) Salutation: This comes on the left hand corner immediately after the date.  The form depends on whom you are writing to. However, whosoever you may be writing to, the salutation should be: ‘Dear + First name’ (Dear Earnest) or ‘My dear + Dan’, ‘Dear Uncle Dan’

Avoid writing your salutation in this form:

  • ‘Dear uncle’, instead write ‘Dear Uncle’
  • ‘My dear uncle’ instead write “My dear Uncle’
  • ‘Dear father’, instead write ‘Dear Father’
  • ‘Dear Friend’ is not acceptable. It should be ‘Dear’ plus the first name of your friend.

(d) The Body of the Letter: This part should be broken into paragraphs according to the intent of the letter. The opening paragraph should reflect the intimacy between the writer and the receiver. The subsequent paragraphs should discuss the subject matter properly.

(e) Subscript or closing or complimentary close: There are different ways of writing the subscript. The most acceptable type is “Yours sincerely”

(f) Signature: Actually informal letter does not require signature per se; however, to sign off the informal letter, all that is needed is the writer’s first name.



Alvina’s High School,
GRA, Effurun,
Delta State
18th May, 2018.
Dear Jane,
                Body of the Letter
Yours sincerely,



  1. What is informal Letter?
  2. State a typical example of address.


Identify the noun phrases in the following sentences and state their grammatical function

  1. I hope to win the first prize.
  2. My sister tried to solve the puzzle.
  3. The young boy wants to go home.
  4. The accused refused to answer the question.
  5. The notorious criminal has been apprehended by the police.