Advantages and Disadvantages of transportation

Merits and Demerits of transportation


Subject: Business Studies


Class: Basic 9 / JSS 3


Term: First   Term


Week: Week 9



Advantages/Disadvantages of transportation


Previous Knowledge: The pupils have previous knowledge of






that was taught in their previous lesson.



Learning Objectives: At the end of the lesson, learners will be able to



  • explain the Advantages/Disadvantages of transportation
  • define transporrtation



Instructional Materials 

  • Textbook
  • Pictures
  • Online resources
  • Flashcards


Methods of Teaching 

  • Role modelling
  • Questions and Answers
  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Recitation
  • Imitation
  • Story Telling
  • Dramatization


Topic: Advantages/Disadvantages of transportation



Advantages and disadvantages of each choice of transportation

1. Road Transport

This is the transport of passengers or goods on roads.


  • Cheap for shorter distances.
  • Quick for shorter distances.
  • Door to Door delivery.
  • Minimum documents involved.
  • It is flexible. Smaller and larger quantities can be transported to most regions.
  • Round-the-clock availability.


  • Expensive for long distances and heavy loads.
  • Slow for long distances.
  • Effected by topography.
  • Effected by climate.
  • Effected by weather conditions.
  • Effected by traffic congestion.
  • Creates pollution.
  • Creates traffic congestion.

2. Rail Transport

Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.


  • Cheap for long distances.
  • Quick for long distances.
  • Good to carry bulky cargo.
  • Not affected by traffic.
  • Does not create pollution in cities.
  • Special transporters may be provided for different specialized items.
  • Especially suitable for low value and high-volume cargo.


  • Involves documentation.
  • Need for loading and unloading cargo many times.
  • Trains can not go any where.
  • Move only according to schedule.
  • High costs for short distances and small quantities.
  • Located out of cities so depends on road transportation.
  • High capital cost of maintenance of tracks and trains.

3. Air Transportation

A transportation system for moving passengers or goods by air.


  • Quick.
  • Safe handling of cargo.
  • Not effected by topography.
  • Not much documentation involved.
  • Less packing requirement.
  • Less insurance cost.
  • Especially suitable for high value and low volume cargo.
  • Used for urgently required goods.


  • Expensive.
  • Effected by weather conditions.
  • Has constraints as far as carrying of cargo is concerned.
  • Limited space.

4. Sea Transportation

Main Types of Sea Transport

Ships: “Mother Vessel 40,000 MT- 60,000MT” and “Connecting Vessel 20,000 MT” deep port.
Barge: Small Ship – Shallow port
Ferries: Shallow seas and small distance
Boats: River inland transportation

Main Types of Ships

Passenger liner: Normally used to carry passengers, mail and some express cargo.
Cargo liner: Mainly used to carry variety of cargo and sometimes few passengers.
Tramp: It is a cargo ship which does not sail to any special place. It is normally chartered.
Bulk carrier: It is especially built to carry a particular type of cargo, for example oil.
OBO ship: It is can ore-bulk-oil carrier, carries loose material.
Roll-on, roll-off: Highly specialized ships that allow loaded vehicles like trucks, trailers, passenger cars etc.


  • It is cheap per unit of cargo for longer distances.
  • Highly suitable for bulky cargo.
  • Refrigerating and other facilities are available.
  • Containerization is possible.
  • Not effected by topography.


  • Very slow.
  • Very rigid.
  • It is effected by weather conditions.
  • A lot of documentation.
  • Lot of handling of cargo is involved.
  • Extra cost for insurance and packing.

5. Sending cargo in special metallic boxes of standard sizes as containers.

Sending cargo in special metallic boxes of standard sizes as containers.

Size (i): 20’x8’x8’ known as 20 ft container, suitable for low volume, high weight
Size (ii): 40’x8’x8’ known as 40 ft container, suitable for low weight, high volume

Containers are generally owned by shipping lines.

Refrigerated containers are also available.

Containers are available to the traders on less than container load (LCL) and full container load (FCL) basis.

Less than container: Some of the containers;

Full container load: Whole cargo.


  • Quick movement of cargo.
  • Faster turn-around of ships at ports.
  • Protection of cargo from being damaged.
  • Saving on packing cost.
  • Lesser chances of cargo being lost.


  • Expensive to own, Capital cost increases.
  • Dependence on skilled labor.

6. Chartering

A vessel/truck/plane is available to the trader on a chartered basis by paying a certain amount.

The trader can then cover a certain distance or voyage according to his own schedule.

The agreement signed with the owner is called ‘charted party’.

Chartering is available on a voyage and time basis.








Class Teacher and Pupils Activities. Interaction or Participation 

The topic is presented step by step

Step 1: The teacher revises the old topic by asking questions that are related to the previous topics as reminder.

Step 2: The teacher introduces the new topic by telling pupils any story that is related to good or bad office practices, He or she also narrates his or her experience in any of the offices that he or she has visited

Step 3: The teacher allows the pupils to make their own contributions and gives room for pupils” participation by giving answers to their questions. The subject teacher also asks questions that are related to office practice.






1. Define transportation.

2. In what ways does transport aid trade?

3. State five (5) reasons why road transport would be preferred to rail transport.

4. What four (4) factors would determine the mode of transportation by a businessman?

5. What is a charter party?




The subject teacher makes the necessary corrections which gives him or her the opportunity to reteach what has been taught before so that learners that did not understand in the first instance can have the opportunity of relearning the topic again.

He does the necessary marking, grading and corrections