PRY 5 IST TERM AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

 

PRY 5 IST TERM AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

 

SCHEME OF WORK

 

FIRST TERM WEEK TOPICS

  1. Revision of difficult topics in primary four
  2. Soil formation
  3. Agents of soil formation
  4. Processes of soil formation
  5. Classification of crops and their uses Classification according to forms
  6. Classification according to life span
  7. Classification according to uses and types

. 8. Classify the following crops according to their form uses and life span.

  1. Classification of Animals (Live stock)
  2. Classifications based on mode of feeling
  3. Classification based on where they live
  4. Classification based on their uses
  5. Revision of the year’s work

WEEK 2&3

TOPIC: SOIL FORMATION

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

    1. Describe how the action of wind helps in soil formation.
    2. Describe each of these activities.
    3. Name four activities of man that help in soil formation.
    4. Name six agents of soil formation.

Instructional Materials:

A chart showing all farm tools Reference Materials

Lagos state scheme of work, Online information Relevant materials

Pupils textbook

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Behavioral Objectives: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

CONTENT\

MEANING OF SOIL FORMATION

Soil formation

Soil is basically formed from rocks through a process called weathering. Weathering is the breaking down of rocks by such agents as water and wind to form soil.

Agents of Soil Formation Rain

The rock particles, which are dark in color, mix with organic matter to form humus. This type of soil is very fertile and is good for growing crops. Rain also falls on dead plants and animals, and helps in their decay to form soil.

Rain is water that falls in drops from (rain-making) clouds in the sky. When rain falls on mountains and hills, it washes downhill the broken rock particles,

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which help to form soil at their bases. It also breaks them down into rock particles.

Rainfall causes leaching, which dissolves minerals such as carbonates in the soil. The rain then washes them deeper into the soil. Other things that affect soil formation include parent material, living organisms, topography and time.

Rain effects:

  • Increased moisture means more plant growth.
  • Rainwater washes materials off slopes.
  • Rain dissolves minerals and leaches them deeper into the soil

Temperature

When the atmosphere is hot, hills and rocks expand. When the atmosphere is cold, hills and rocks shrink or contract. Those changes create cracks on the surface of hills, rocks and mountains. In the process, small particles fall from the surfaces of the hills, rocks and mountains to form soil.

Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold the atmosphere is at a particular time of the day or night.

Rocks expand and contract as they heat up or cool, breaking them apart. Temperature controls the rates of chemical weathering (when water interacts with minerals in the rocks to create chemical reactions). Chemical weathering happens much faster in warm places.

Warmer temperatures may also mean more plant growth, soil organisms and litter decomposition.

Wind

Wind blows on surfaces of hills and mountains. The force of the wind makes particles fall off the hills and mountains to form soil elsewhere

The wind is also able to move surprisingly large quantities of soil. On occasions fine soil deposits can be seen which have been blown all the way from North African deserts.

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Man

Man can also aid in formation. This happens when we break parent rocks which will in time form soils

Man breaks up rocks with pickaxes or hammers. The small pieces of the rocks collect to form soil. Man also uses heavy machines to crack rocks into small pieces which form soil.

Animals and Plants

These animals may carry some dead leaves and grasses into the holes as

beddings. When rain falls on them, these dead materials decay to form soil. Some animals dig holes in the ground and live there. When animals dig holes in the ground, they cause physical damage to rocks to form soil. Examples of such animals are the rat, cricket and the earthworm.

Living things influence soil formation in many ways. Plants, microorganisms, animals and even humans can make a difference. Once a plant community

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becomes established, it has a big effect on soil development. Tree roots penetrate deeply into soils, bringing up minerals and incorporating them into organic matter. Grasses penetrate less deeply but have increased biological activity and more rapid nutrient cycling.

Some trees grow in-between rocks. Their roots help to break up rocks into particles that form soil.

Plants grow in the soil. They drop their leaves, including dead ones, on the ground. When rain falls, the leaves decay to form soil. Plants also die and decay to form soil.

Earthworms and other animals tunnel through and mix the soil. They aerate the soil and allow water to penetrate more deeply. Humans also influence soil formation.

WEEK 4

Processes of Soil Formation

Soil formation occurs more quickly through the action of water, wind, man and animals.

  1. Ploughing: Man clears the vegetation on the land. He leaves some to decay on the ground to form soil. He puts some in the soil in the form of manure. All these decay to form soil.

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  1. Mulching: Man cuts grasses and spreads them on seed beds in the form of mulch. These grasses later decay to form soil.

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4. Movement of rocks: Man carries rock pieces in Lorries and tippers from one place to another, where they are deposited to form soil.

3. Compost making: Man cuts some plants and uses them to make compost. He spreads the compost on his farm where it mixes with other particles to form soil.

  1. Household waste: Man drops household waste in refuse dumps. The contents of refuse dumps decay to form farmyard manure and compost. The manure is spread on the farm where it forms soil

Action of wind

Animals, such as termites, eat dead plants and change them to soil through their droppings.

Action of animals

Wind blows across deserts and dry areas carrying soil particles with it. These particles fall and cover grasses and shrubs. The grasses and shrubs later die where they are covered. When rain falls, they decay and form soil.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

    1. Describe how the action of wind helps in soil formation.
    2. Describe each of these activities.
    3. Name four activities of man that help in soil formation.
    4. Name six agents of soil formation.

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WRAP UP (CONCLUSION): Teacher goes over the topic once again for better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

4. Describe how the action of wind helps in soil formation.

3. Describe each of these activities.

2. Name four activities of man that help in soil formation.

1. Name six agents of soil formation.

WEEK 5&6

TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS AND THEIR USES

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Name three ways by which we can classify crops
  2. What are perennial crops? Give examples
  3. Classify these crops according to their forms: maize, beans, water-leaf, soya beans, cassava, pepper and cocoa.
  4. Classify the crops according to their uses.
  5. Classify the crops according to their lifespan.

Instructional Materials:

A chart showing all farm tools Pepper

Maize Beans Water leaf

Reference Materials

Lagos state scheme of work, Online information Relevant materials

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Pupils textbook

Behavioral Objectives: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

. CONTENT

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS AND THEIR USES

Farmers plant many crops. Examples are maize, rice, tomato, pepper, okra, kola nut, beans and groundnut. We can classify all crops in various ways, mainly: according to forms and lifespan and according to types and uses

Classification by Forms

The lifespan of a crop, however, is the average length of time that it will live. For example, some crops, such as yams, may live for one year. Others, such as the oil palm, may live for many years.

Crops differ in their forms and lifespan. The form of a crop is the arrangement of its external parts (its parts that can be seen) in such a way that can be used to identify it. For example, a bean seedling has its parts arranged differently from a maize seedling.

There are two major forms of crop plants: monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Monocots

Monocotyledons or monocotyledonous crops are crops that have one seed leaf buried in the soil after germination. An example is the maize seedling. The seed provides food for the plant when it starts to grow.

Monocots have only one seed leaf inside the seed coat. It is often only a thin leaf, because the endosperm to feed the new plant is not inside the seed leaf.

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Dicots

Dicots have two seed leaves inside the seed coat. They are usually rounded and fat, because they contain the endosperm to feed the embryo plant.

Dicotyledons or dicotyledonous crops, on the other hand, are crops with more than one seed leaves carried above the soil after germination. An example is the bean seedling. The cotyledons supply the seedling with food after germination. They also protect the stem of the seedling when it first appears above the soil.

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WEEK 6

Classification according to Lifespan

Crops can be grouped according to their life span as follows: annuals, biennials and perennials.

Annuals

These are plants that perform their entire life cycle from seed to flower to seed within a single growing season. All roots, stems and leaves of the plant die annually. Examples are lettuce, and spinach

Annual crops are crops that grow and live for about one year. Many vegetables belong to this group. Examples include tomato, amaranthus, okra, onion and carrot. Other crops in this group are yam, maize, rice, groundnut, millet, garden egg, sorghum, cassava and potato.

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Biennials

These are plants which require two years to complete their life cycle. Examples are onions, carrot, and cabbage

Biennial crops are crops that live for two years after germination and produce seeds or fruits in the second year. Examples are castor oil, pepper, alligator pepper, plantain, banana, sugarcane, pineapple and pawpaw.

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Perennials

These are crops that persist for many growing seasons. Examples are cashew trees, palm trees, and banana trees.

Perennial crops are plants or crops that live and produce for more than two years after germination. Examples of such crops are the oil palm, cocoa, mango, citrus, guava and kola.

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WEEK 7&8

Classification according to Uses and Types

There are many classes of crops depending on their types and uses. These are cereals, legumes, tubers, vegetables, fruits, beverages, oils, drugs, spices, latex and sugar crops.

Cereals

These are plants that are grown to produce grains used for food by man and animals. They are mostly in the form of grasses. Examples of cereals are maize, rice, millet, guinea corn, sorghum and wheat.

Examples are

    • Millet
    • Rice
    • Sorghum Uses
    • As raw materials for industries
    • For feeding domestic animals.
    • For making starch.
    • As pap for meal, especially breakfast.
    • Roasted, boiled, and eaten, e.g. maize.
    • Cooked as food, e.g. rice.
    • For making flour used in baking bread and producing biscuits, e.g. wheat.

Legumes

These are plants of the beans family. They produce pods that bear seeds in rows. The pods are split into two along their lengths when dry to bring out the seeds. Examples are cowpea, soya bean, green beans and pigeon pea.

Uses

Some are used for making animal feed.

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Some are used for preparing babies’ food.

Some can be prepared into flour for baking bread. Some can be ground and fried as balls, e.g. akara balls.

Legumes can be boiled, eaten alone or eaten with other food items.

Examples are:

    • Beans
    • Soy beans

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Tubers

Tubers are the roots of some crops, e.g. cassava, and the stems of other crops,

e.g. yam. They grow inside the soil. Uses

Some can be processed into starch for use in industries. Cassava can be processed into garri for food.

Some can be fried as chips for food.

Some can be prepared into flour meal, e.g. amala (yam) and foofoo

(cassava).

Some can be pounded and eaten with soup.

Yam and cassava can be boiled or roasted for food.

Examples

    • Yam
    • Potato
    • cassava

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Vegetables

Vegetables are mostly annual crops that we eat their leaves, fruits or roots as food. Examples are amaranthus, cabbage, tomato, okra, pepper, carrot and onion.

Examples:

    • Okra
    • Tomatoes
    • Cabbage

. USES

They can be eaten raw or used in making salad. Their leaves and fruits are used for preparing soup. They can be processed into fruit juices and drinks.

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Beverages

These are crops grown for the purpose of producing food drinks as their end product. Examples are tea, coffee and cocoa

Examples are tea and coffee

USES

Some beverage crops are used for making chocolate. Beverage crops are used for preparing food drinks.

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Drugs

Examples are opium and coca leaves

Spices

Examples are pepper and ginger FRUIT CROPS

These are crops grown for the purpose of producing fruits for man and

animals. Examples of such fruit crops are citrus, mango, guava, pear, banana, plantain, pineapple and pawpaw.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

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  1. Name three ways by which we can classify crops
  2. What are perennial crops? Give examples
  3. Classify these crops according to their forms: maize, beans, water-leaf, soya beans, cassava, pepper and cocoa.
  4. Classify the crops according to their uses.
  5. Classify the crops according to their lifespan.

WRAP UP (CONCLUSION): Teacher goes over the topic once again for better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

. Classify the crops in (3) above according to their lifespan Classify the crops in (3) above according to their uses.

Classify these crops according to their forms: maize, beans, water-leaf, soya beans, cassava, pepper and cocoa.

What are perennial crops? Give two examples. Name three ways by which we can classify crops.

WEEK 9

TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMALS (LIVESTOCK)

BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. Name five farm animal
  2. State the product obtained from farm animals
  3. Give examples of ruminant animals
  4. Give examples of non ruminant animals
  5. Name animals used as beast of burden. Instructional Materials:

A chart showing all types of farm animals.

Reference Materials

Lagos state scheme of work, Online information Relevant materials

Pupils textbook

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Behavioral Objectives: pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

CONTENT

Classification OF FARM ANIMALS

Farm animals (livestock) can be classified based on four major things: their mode of feeding, their mode of breeding, i.e. how they produce young ones, their habitats, i.e. where they live, and their uses

CLASSIFICATION OF FARM ANIMALS BASED ON MODE OF FEEDING

There are two classes of animals under this mode of classification: ruminants and non-ruminants.

Ruminants

Ruminant are animals that chew the cud.

These farm animals feed mostly on grass. They are called ruminants because they have four stomachs and they chew the cud. What that means is that the animals eat fresh grass, store it in one of their four stomachs and later bring it back into the mouth to chew again before finally swallowing it.

Examples of such animals are sheep, goat and cow.

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Examples are:

    • Cow
    • Goat
    • Sheep

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Non-ruminants

Non-ruminants are animals that do not chew the cud.

There are other animals that feed more on tubers, grains, beans and fruits. These animals are called non-ruminants because they have a single stomach and do not chew the cud. Examples of such animals are poultry, pigs and rabbits

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Examples are:

    • Pig
    • Chicken
    • horse WEEK 10

Classification of farm animals based on mode of breeding

Breeding means the way farm animals produce their young ones. Some animals produce their young ones alive and in their own shape and form. They provide breast milk for their young ones when they are born. Examples are the cow, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit and the horse

Other farm animals produce their young ones by laying eggs. The eggs later hatch into young ones. Examples are poultry and fish.

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WEEK 11

Classification based on where they live

The habitat of an animal is its natural home. Most farm animals live on land. They feed and breed there. Examples are the cow, pig, poultry and cattle.

Some other farm animals live in water. They feed and breed there. An example is fish.

So, based on classification according to habitat, there are two classes of farm animals: land-living and water-living animals.

Land living

These are animals that live on land. Examples are:

    • Goat
    • Sheep
    • Cow

Water living

These are animals that live in water. Examples:

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    • Fish
    • alligators
    • hippopotamuses
    • penguins WEEK 12

Classification based on Uses

Milk (Diary) producers

These are animals that produce milk. An example is cattle.Some animals supply us with milk. Examples are cow and goat

Meat producers

These are animals that are reared to produce meat. Examples are goat, cow and broilers( chicken).

The flesh of some farm animals serves as good meat for man. Examples are cow (beef), goat, fish, sheep and poultry.

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Egg producers

Some animals are reared to produce eggs. Examples are chicken(layers) and quail.

Some farm animals supply us with eggs. Examples are the fowl, duck and the goose. The eggs can be eaten cooked or fried. Eggs are also used in baking

Work (beast of burden)

These are used to carry load. Examples are donkey and ox.

Farm animals that are used to do heavy work on the farm are also called beasts of burden.

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Other farm animals are used for carrying goods, e.g. farm produce and people from one place to another. Examples of such animals are the donkey and the horse.

Some farm animals are used to do work on the farm, such as cultivating the soil, planting and weeding. Examples of such animals are oxen and bullocks.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

  1. Name five farm animal
  2. State the product obtained from farm animals
  3. Give examples of ruminant animals
  4. Give examples of non ruminant animals
  5. Name animals used as beast of burden.

WRAP UP (CONCLUSION): Teacher goes over the topic once again for better understanding.

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ASSIGNMENT

Name two animals used as beasts of burden. Name one farm animal that lives inside water. Give two examples of non-ruminant animals. Give two examples of ruminant animals.

State one product each obtained from these animals. Name five farm animals.

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