Types of Agriculture

Subject :

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

Topic :

Types of Agriculture-(levels of agriculture) Subsistence and Commercial (Characteristics Required).

Class :

JSS 1  / Basic  7

 

Term :

FIRST TERM

 

Week :

Week 3

Reference Materials :  .

REFERENCE TEXTS:

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.

 

 

Instructional Materials :..

  • PICTURES
  • WALL CHARTS

 

 

Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Evolution of Agriculture (Historical Development of Agriculture)– History/Gathering, Settled/Commercial farming.

 

 

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Define Subsistence Agriculture
  • List (4) four characteristics of subsistence agriculture.
  • Define commercial agriculture.
  • List the characteristics of commercial agriculture.

 

 

Content :

 

TOPIC: TYPES OF AGRICULTURE.

Sub–Topic 1: Types of Agriculture

There are two types of agriculture. They include:

  • Subsistence Agriculture
  • Commercial Agriculture.

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE:

This is the type of agriculture whereby a farmer produces food enough to feed himself and his family, with little or more for sale. Whatever he sells serves as income to the family.

Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture

  • Produces purposely for family consumption.
  • Small land is used for production
  • Farmer and his family members do the labour.
  • Simple farm tools like hoe, cutlass, spade, rake etc. are used.
  • Many crops are planted on the same plot. e.g. maize, melon, yam, vegetables. In other words, he practices mixed cropping system.
  • Fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides are not used commonly.
  • Usually owned by peasant farmers.
  • No specialization on any particular crop.
  • Small capital is needed by the farmer.

Commercial Agriculture

This is the type of agriculture whereby a farmer produces purposely for sale. His desire is to make maximum profit. It is therefore a profit-oriented venture/enterprise.

Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture

  • Produce purposely for sale to make maximum profit.
  • Large area of land is used as a result large-scale production is made.
  • Hired and skilled workers are used for labour.
  • Modern farm, implements are used.
  • Mono-cropping system is usually practiced e.g. only maize or rice because of the use of farm machines in farm operation.
  • Fertilizers, herbicides pesticides and many other chemicals are used
  • It is usually owned government or limited companies.
  • It leads to specialization on certain types of crops.
  • Large capital is involved.

EVALUATION

  • Define Subsistence Agriculture
  • List (4) four characteristics of subsistence agriculture.
  • Define commercial agriculture.
  • List the characteristics of commercial agriculture.

Sub – Topic 2: Difference between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.

 

SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
  • Produces purposely for family consumption
  • Small land is required for production
  • Simple farm tools e.g. cutlass, hoe, axe, spade, rake, watering can etc.
  • Many crops are planted on the same plot (mixed cropping system) which does not encourage mechanization Family labour is used

. Small capital is involved

  • It is own by peasant farmers
  • Fertilizers, chemicals e.g. herbicides, pesticides are not often used.
  • Produces purposely for sale to make profit
  • Large area of land is required for production
  • Modern farm machinery e.g. Bulldozer, tractors, planters, combined harvesters, air craft etc.
  • Only one crop is planted on same land which encourages mechanization
  • Hired and skilled workers are used for labour
  • Large capital is involved
  • Own by Governments or Limited Companies.
  • Herbicides, Pesticides and many other chemicals are used.

EVALUATION

  • State five differences between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.

Weekend Assignment

 

Junior secondary Agriculture (workbook 1)byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al pages 3 & 4

Pre-reading Assignment

Read the forms of agriculture using Junior secondary Agriculture, book1

REFERENCE TEXTS:

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.

 

Presentation

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

Evaluation :

 

  • Define Subsistence Agriculture
  • List (4) four characteristics of subsistence agriculture.
  • Define commercial agriculture.
  • List the characteristics of commercial agriculture.

Conclusion :

 

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.

 

Assignment :

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about

 

Forms/ Branches of Agriculture (Crops).

(Visited 178 times, 1 visits today)

error: Content is protected !!