Simple Farm tools Identification, Agriculture Science Basic 7 /JSS 1 Third Term

NAME:………………………………………………………………………………..

 

CLASS:…………………………………….

 

THIRD TERM E—LEARNING NOTES

JS 1 (BASIC 7)

SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK TOPIC

1. Revision of work done second term / simple farm toolsS

  1. Simple Farm tools- Identification, Diagram, Drawing (at least 10)

  2. Uses of Simple Farm Tools

  3. Maintenance of Simple Farm Tools

  4. Meaning of weed/- Classification (Annual, biennial, Perennial)

  5. Weeds (contd) (a) Characteristics of Weeds, (a) Uses of Weeds (c) methods of weeds control (d) Effects of weeds control methods on vegetations and soil

  6. Crop pests : classification based on mouth parts

  7. Crop pests (contd) (a)Description of the damage done by pests (a) Effects of crop pests on yield

  8. Economic Empowerment through agriculture

  9. Marketing of Agricultural produce

  10. Revision

  11. Examination

WEEK 1

DATE:………………………………..

TOPIC: Revision of work done second term

WEEK 2

DATE:………………………………………

TOPIC: SIMPLE FARM TOOLS Identification, Diagram And Drawing (At Least 10)

Sub-Topic 1: Identification Of Simple Farm Tools

Simple farm tools are tools used by farmers to carry out different operations on the farm. They are locally constructed and most of them consist of wooden handles and metal blades. The various farm tools used by farmers include:

SIMPLE FARM TOOLS

  • Hoe
  • Cutlass/ Matchet
  • Spade
  • Shovel
  • Hand trowel
  • Digging/ Garden fork
  • Axe
  • Sickle
  • Garden Shears
  • Secateurs
  • Budding knife/ Harvesting knife
  • Pick axe
  • Rake
  • Watering can
  • Head pan
  • Wheelbarrow
  • File
  • Mattock

EVALUATION:

  1. What are simple farm tools?

  2. Highlight ten (10) simple farm tools.

Sub-Topic 2: DIAGRAM AND DRAWING OF SIMPLE FARM TOOL

RAKE

EVALUATION:

  1. Identify the following tools by their names

A B C D E

  1. Describe two of the above tools

PRE- READING ASSIGNMENT: Read the uses of simple farm tools

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT:

STUDENTS ACTIVITY: Draw and Label ten (10) simple farm tools

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  • Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro
  • Essentials Of Agricultural Science For JSS And Colleges By Earnest Chukwudi

WEEK: 3

DATE:

TOPIC: USES OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS.

CONTENT

The following are some simple farm tools and their uses.

  1. Cutlass:

It is used for felling trees, clearing bushes, planting

Seeds, transplanting seedling and for harvesting crops.

2 Hoe: It is used for digging the soil to prepare ridges, heaps or beds for planting crops. It is also used for planting seeds, transplanting seedlings, harvesting crops and for weeding.

3 Axe: It is used for felling trees, removing large stumps, cutting and splitting wood.

4 Spade /Shovel: It is used for digging the soil to plant crops, lifting or leveling soil and for spreading manure.

5 Pickaxe orDigger: It is used for removing large tree stumps and for tilling hard soil.

6 Sickle: It is used for cutting grass pasture for animals, harvesting cereal crops e.g rice, millet, etc and for light weeding.

7 Hand Trowel: It is used for digging holes for plantings seeds, transplanting seedling on ridges and beds, and for spreading manure and fertilizers.

8 Garden Fork: It is used for turning manure during compost making, loosing the soil for spreading manure on the surface of the soil, and for loading manure and hay.

9 Rake: It is used for removing rubbish, stones, and uprooted weeds. It is also used for breaking up large pieces of soil and leveling the soil, and spreading manure and fertilizers.

10 Watering can: It is used for sprinkling water on seedlings in the nursery and or on the field

11. Shears/Secateurs: It is used for pruning shrubs and trimming flowers

12 Head pan: It is used for collecting harvested crops, transplanting seedlings and for carrying manure and fertilizers.

13 Wheelbarrow: Ii is used for carrying seedlings to transplant, farm inputs e.g fertilizers, seeds and farm outputs e.g. harvested crops.

14 Basket: It is used for carrying harvested crops and to ferment cocoa beans.

15 Mattock: It is used for digging and uprooting the

Stumps of small trees.

Evaluation:

1 List any five simple farm tools and state their uses.

2 List two simple farm tools used for felling trees.

Weekend Assignment:

  1. Draw any ten simple farm tools and state their uses.

Reading Assignment:

Topic; Maintenance of simple farm tools.

Reference books:

  1. Junior Secondary Agriculture by Anthony Youdeowei et al.

  2. Essential Agricultural Science by O.W Iwena.

WEEK 4

DATE: …………………………….

TOPIC: MAINTENANCE OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS

CONTENT

The following maintenance practices or precautions are to be adopted to prolong the life span and effective use of farm tools

1 Tools should be washed or cleaned after use.

2 Oil, grease or lubricate movable parts to reduce friction.

3 Sharpen tools with blunt edges or blades regularly .e,g cutlass

4 Paint, oil or grease metallic parts to prevent rusting if they are to be kept for a long time.

5 Store tools in a cool dry place.

6 Replace worn-out or damaged parts of farm tools.

7 C heck and tighten loose nuts and bolts daily or periodically.

8 Remove tools with wooden parts away from the sun to avoid cracking.

9 Keep metallic tools away from rain or moist places to avoid rusting.

10 Keep tools with wooden handles away from termites and fire.

  1. Handle tools with care and use them for the right farm operations.

EVALUATION

  1. State five maintenance practices of farm tools.
  2. Give two reasons why farm tools should be maintained

Weekend Assignment

Junior Secondary Agriculture (workbook) by Anthony Youdeowei et al ( pages 25-28)

1 List five farm tools with sharp edges.

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  • Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro
  • Essential Agricultural Science by O.A Iwena

 

WEEK 5

TOPIC: WEED

CONTENT: – Definition of weeds.

  • Classification of weeds.

Sub –Topic 1: DEFINITION OF WEEDS.

Weeds are plants growing where they are not wanted. A plant may be weed in one farm but crop in another farm. For instance, a cowpea plant growing in a cassava plot is a weed.

SOME COMMON WEEDS

Guinea grass, bahama grass, carpet grass, spear grass, wire grass, centrosema, calopogonium, stubborn grass ,elephant grass, giant star grass, stubborn weed, goat weed, pig weed, water leaf, tridax, sida acuta, bush green, etc.

Classification of weeds:

1. Classification based on habitat.

[a] Aquatic weeds: these are weeds that grow on water. Examples are water hyacinth, water lettuce, water lily etc.

[b] Terrestrial weeds: these are weeds that grow on land. Most weeds are terrestrial weeds. Examples are goat weeds, siam weeds, carpet grass, tridax etc.

[c] Epiphytic weeds: These are weeds that grow on other plants. Examples are striga senegalensis [on cereals]; dodder [on cassava] and pumpkin; mistletoe on kola, cocoa etc.

EVALUATION:

1.Define weed.

2.Classify the following weeds in the table below. Water lettuce, siam weed, tridax, dodder, water hyacinth, mistletoe.

Terrestrial weeds Aquatic weeds Epiphytic weeds

SUB-TOPIC 2: Classification based on life cycle

a. Annual weeds: These are weeds that complete their life cycle within one year. Examples are goat weed ,tridax Emilia weed Tridax aspilia amaranthus etc.

b. Biennial weeds: These are weeds that complete their life cycle in two years. Examples are morning glory, wild carrot etc.

c. Perennial weeds: These are weeds that complete their life cycle in more thantwo years. Examples are elephant grass, sida acuta spear grass Kudzu, carpet grass etc.

3. Classification based on the shape of the leaves.

a. Broad- leaved: These are weed plants with broad leaves. These are also called dicotyledonous plants. Examples are tridax, centro, stubborn weed, goat weed, water leaf, Calapo etc.

b. Grasses and Sedges: These are plants that have long, thin leaves and are monocotyledonous plants. Eg :millet, maize, elepant grass, guinea grss, etc

EVALUATION:

  1. Mention two examples of the following :

a. Perennial weeds

b. Annual weeds

c. Biennial weeds

2.Explain the following with examples :

i Monocotyledonous weeds

ii Dicotyledonous weeds.

READING ASSIGNMENT:

Junior Secondary Agriculture for Nigerian Schools, book one; Chapter 9, pages 76-78.

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT:

Go round the school premises and identify different types of common weeds

Reference Texts.

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  • Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro
  • Essential Agricultural Science by O.A Iwena

WEEK: 6

DATE:……………………………………

TOPIC : Weeds (contd.):

CONTENTS: i. Characteristics of weeds

ii. Uses of weeds

iii. Method of weeds control

iv. Effects of weeds control on vegetation and soil

Sub-Topic 1: Characteristics of Weeds

  1. Weeds produce many seeds.

  2. They can survive in adverse soil condition.

3 . They grow very fast.

  1. Weeds can survive hard weather condition.

  2. The seeds can remain dormant in the soil for a long time.

6 They are easily dispersed. Eg by wind, animals, etc.

  1. Seeds of weeds are highly viable.

Uses of Weeds

Some weeds are:

  1. used as cover crops.

  2. used as forage grasses and legumes for feeding animals.

  3. used to prepare compost and green manure.

  4. Used to control soil erosion.

  5. Medicinal plants.

  6. used as fuel (firewood) for cooking

EVALUATION

  1. State five characteristics of weeds.

  2. Mention four uses of weeds.

Sub-Topic 2: Methods of weeds control

Weed control refers to any deliberate effort made by man to eliminate weed seed and stop them from growing or stop weed growth. Weeds can be controlled by the following methods:

  1. Mechanical weed control It may be in the following forms:

i. Hand pulling: The use of hand to remove weeds.

ii. Hoeing :It entails using hoes to remove weeds.

iii. Moeing: The use of mower to clear weeds.

Other methods include flooding, smothering, heat treatment.

2.Chemical weed control: Special chemical called herbicides have been produced which are poisonous to weeds and are used to kill them.Examples of such chemicals include, gramozon, arsenicals, chlorate,Atrazine

  1. Cultural weed control: Weeds are controlled by the use of cultural practices such as burning, mulching, tillage, crop rotation, etc to kill weeds

  2. Biological weed control: This method involves the use living organisms, (plants and animals) to controlled weeds eg. Cover crops, animal grazing.

Effects of weed control methods on vegetation and soil

  • Herbicides can be poisonous to human beings.
  • Herbicides can pollute soil and ground water.
  • Herbicides can contaminate livestock pasture thereby killing the animals that feed on them.
  • Some herbicides, when used can kill both good and unwanted plants and animals.

EVALUATION

List four methods you could use to control weeds.

State three effects of weeds on the environment

Weekend Assignment

Junior Secondary Agriculture (workbook) by Anthony Youdeowei et al pages 47-52

REFERENCE TEXTS

1.Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al

2 .Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

  • Essential Agricultural Science by O.A Iwena

SUBJECT: Agricultural Science

CLASS: JSSI

WEEK: 7

DATE:

TOPIC: CROP PESTS (Classification based on mouth parts)

CONTENT

i.Meaning of pest.

ii. Type of pests.

Sub-topic 1: Meaning of pest.

Introduction: Pest can be defined simply as any living organism, plant or animal, which can cause damage to cultivated crops, animals and human beings. Human beings can also be called pests if they cause damage to crops or livestock. They can carry organisms that cause diseases.

Type of pests : The most common pests include:

  1. Insects eg. Grasshoppers, beetles, aphids, etc,

  2. Mammals (rodents) eg rats, monkey, grass cutters, squirrels, etc

  3. Birds eg. Weaver birds.

  4. Nematodes are worms that live in the soil.

EVALUATION

  1. What is pest?

  2. List the groups of pests and give two examples in each group.

Sub-Topic 2: Insect pests:

These are the most common pests of crops all over the world. Insects are animals without backbone and they belong to a group of animals called arthropods (animals with segmented bodies) .

Insects destroy crops by feeding on them. Insects are classified based on their mouth parts into three groups known as:

Classification of insect pests

i. Piercing and sucking insect pests

ii. Biting and chewing insect pests

  1. Boring insect pests

I .Piercing and sucking insects

These group of insects include white flies, aphids, mealy bug, cotton stainer, butter flies, moth, Scale insects etc. These insect have mouth parts modified to pierce and suck the sap from tissue of tender crop plants .In the process, transmitting diseases to them and reducing the growth of the plants.

ii. Biting and chewing insect pests

These insects’ pests include locusts, grasshoppers, termites, mantis, cockroaches and nymphs. They feed on the leaves and young stems of plants by biting and chewing.

iii. Boring insect pests

These are insects that bore holes into plant tissues and seeds. The grains that are kept in the store are damaged by weevils. They use their long mouth part to bore holes into the grains

Examples are weevils, stem borers, beetles, etc

The damage done by these boring pests reduce crop quality and their market value.

EVALUATION

  • List the groups of insect pests based on their mouth parts and give two examples of each.

Weekend Assignment

Junior Secondary Agriculture (workbook) by Anthony Youdeowei et al pages 35-36

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  1. Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

  2. Comprehensive Agricultural Science by G.M Nwabuisi et al

WEEK: 8

DATE:…………………………………

TOPIC: CROP PESTS (contd)

CONTENT:1. Description of the damage done by pests

  1. Effects of crop pests on yield

Sub-Topic 1: Description of the damage done by pests

Crop pests do a lot of damage crops either on the farm or in the store. The damages done by pests include:

  • Some insect pests are carriers of diseases which they transmit to healthy plants.

Examples of diseases transmitted by insect are: ground nut rosette, cassava mosaic, swollen shoot of cocoa, etc

  • Mammals( rodents) e.g rats, grass-cutter eat up the tubers of yam, cassava and potato.
  • The birds destroy rice, sorghum, beans , maize and fruits at various stages of their growth on the farm.

EVALUATION

Describe the nature of damage to crops by the following:

  • Insect pests
  • Rodents

Sub-Topic: 2. Effects of crop pests on yield

  • Heavy attack by pests may result in total crop failure.
  • Infected seeds, crops, and vegetables have low market value.
  • Pests reduce the quality and quantity of crops
  • Pests eat up leaves of crops, thereby reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant.
  • Insect pests control takes time and labour.
  • Infected seeds usually have low viability (germination) capacity.
  • Some insects like aphids transmit diseases to crops.
  • Insect infestation increases cost of production.

EVALUATION

State five effects of pests on crop yield

Weekend Assignment

Junior Secondary Agriculture (workbook) by Anthony Youdeowei et al pages 37- 38

REFERENCE TEXTS

  • Junior Secondary Agriculture For Nigerian Schools By Anthony Youdeowei et al
  1. Intensive Agricultural science For JSS 1-3 By E.U Okaro

  2. Comprehensive Agricultural Science by G.M Nwabuisi et al

SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.

CLASS: JSS 1

WEEK 9

DATE:

TOPIC: ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT THROUGH AGRICULTURE.

CONTENT:

i.Meaning of economic empowerment.

ii Economic empowerment through Agriculture.

Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of economic empowerment.

Economic empowerment involves giving money to the farmers in form of loan or grant and other necessary assistance to enable them improve and increase their agricultural production.

Economic empowerment entails putting money into one`s hand and making one able to earn a living. Whatever man does, to get money, to meet the basic necessities of life and to make life more comfortable for him is regarded as been economically empowered.

EVALUATION:

i. Describe the term economic empowerment.

Ii. What are the basic needs of life.

Sub-Topic 2: Economic empowerment through Agriculture.

Agriculture provides a means of economic empowerment to up to 75% of the population in diverse ways. Ways by which agriculture has empowered people include the following:

i. cultivating crops,

ii. rearing livestock,

iii. sales of farm produce,

iv. rendering services

v. skill acquisition.

1. Crop cultivation: This involves preparation of land to plant crops for sale. Both food crops and cash crops can be produced to make money to earn a living.

2. Rearing livestock: Agriculture can put money into peoples` hand to solve their problems through rearing of animals. Livestock(like cattle, sheep, goat, poultry etc) provides a lot of products which could be sold to earn money. Empowerment is also provided as farm attendants and farm managers.

3.Sales of farm produce : Crops and animal produce are been sold to get money. Some buy in bulk from the farm as wholesalers while some are retailers.

  1. Rendering services: Various assistance are needed by both crop farmers and livestock farmers. They can employ people to help them in their activities. People who are hired to do such work are duly paid. Examples of activities on farm are, farm cultivation, weeding, harvesting, packing of produce, loading , veterinary services.

5. Skill acquisition: This is the process by which one gains knowledge or learn how to do something well (skill) so as to practice it. E.g farmer can learn how to compound feed. This will help him to improve his productivity .Educating farmer on these new skills can also provide means of living for the teachers.

EVALUATION

i. What do you understand by empowerment?

i. List four ways of making money through agriculture

ii. What is skill acquisition?

WEEK 10

TOPIC: MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE

CONTENT: 1. Meaning of market and marketing

2. Marketing activities

3. Types of Agricultural marketing

Introduction: Man depends on agricultural produce for sustenance. Those who produce food (farmers) look for consumers to buy them. This gives rise to markets and marketing. A lot of activities take place in the process of selling and buying .

Sub-Topic 1: MARKET:

A market is a place or medium where goods or desired items are exchanged by two or more persons. For instance, there are cattle market, poultry market, fruits market, grain market at Ibadan city

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING:

Marketing is the act of selling and buying of goods. Agricultural marketing therefore is the selling and purchasing of agricultural produce. Marketing may require face to face contact or may be one through letters, telephone or e-mails. Marketing may be daily, weekly or monthly as the case may be.

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES:

Agricultural products need special handling to ensure that they are available throughout the year. This special handling involves the following activities

  1. Farm level processing: Farm produce are processed so as to keep them preserved for a long time. It also enables some produce to have better quality and taste. Fish and meat can be processed and canned. E.g Sardine and cornbeef

  2. Grading and sorting: Grading and sorting is done so as to ensure the sizes, shape, quantity and quality of agricultural produce before they are sold at the market.

  3. Packaging: processed food are packaged in containers, cases, or wrapped.It makes transportation easy and maintains high hygiene standard.

  4. Storage: Processed farm produce are usually kept in the store awaiting transportation and marketing

  5. Transportation: Farm produce are transported from the farm to the market where they are sold. Animals like donkey or camels can be used. Big lorry can as well be used

  6. Distribution: Traders, wholesalers and retailers are involved in the distribution of farm produce to the consumers.

7 Advertisement: This is done so as to make buyers aware of farm produce that are available for sale. It could be done verbally or through the radio or television

8 Merchandising: It is the last stage and involves the actual sales of the agricultural produce.

Sub-Topic 2:TYPES OF MARKETS

The following are the type of markets:

(i) Farm gate market: Selling and buying of goods where they are produce

(ii) Local market: Small market in a community where produce are sold

(iii) Large market: Where licensed sellers sell their goods. Marketing boards and cooperative society are involved.

(iv) International market: It is a market where exported agricultural products are sold in other countries. The Federal Government is involved.

(V) Stock Exchange Market: Shares are sold and bought in such markets.

PERFECT AND IMPERTECT MARKETS: In a perfect market where there are many sellers and buyers, the decision of any of them (to sell or not to sell) will not affect the price of the produce. But in an imperfect market, the decision of any of the sellers or buyers will affect the price of the produce they are dealing with.

Below are forms of imperfect market

  • Monoply: when there is one seller

  • Duopoly: when there is two sellers

  • Oligopoly: when there is a small number of sellers

  • Monopsony: when there is only one buyers

  • Duopsony: when there are two buyers

  • Oligopsony: when there is a small number of buyers

EVALUATION:

  1. Name 6 agricultural marketing activities

  2. List the type of market known to you

ASSIGNMENT:

Students are to visit the nearby local market to observe and make a list of the different items being sold.

 

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