Evolution of Agriculture (Historical Development of Agriculture)

Subject :

Agricultural Science

Topic :

Evolution of Agriculture (Historical Development of Agriculture)– History/Gathering, Settled/Commercial farming.

Class :

JSS 1  / Basic 7

 

Term :

1st Term

 

Week :

Week 2

Reference Materials :  .

REFERENCE TEXTS:

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et a

 

 

 

Instructional Materials :..

  • Pictures of early men that were hunters , wanderers and farmers

 

 

Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of Meaning , Definition and importance of Agriculture 

 

 

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Explain the Origin of agriculture?
  • say how were the early men surviving before the cultivation of crops started?
  • Mention some of the food they were eating.
  • Explain how did planting of crops start?
  • say how  animals were  tamed by early farmers?
  • mention the tools that were used by early men
  • Mention the four stages in the development of Agriculture

 

 

Content :

 

THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE.

Sub – Topic 1:

The Origin of Agriculture.

The oldest vocation is Agriculture. Agriculture is as old as the early man. The earliest man practiced fruit gatherings and hunting of animals, which they used as food. The early man and his family fed on wild animals, roots, leaves and fruits collected as they wander from place to place. The type and quantity available at the time required irregular, uncertain and subject to the conditions they found themselves they continued with their nomadic life until they could no longer carry their families about.

The beginning of agriculture and the early farming tools.

As families increased, a more settled form of agriculture became inevitable. As they settled for a

long time in a place, they discovered that some of the seeds of fruits thrown around their dwelling place germinated, grew and produced the same fruits of their kinds. They started to cultivate the land, sowed seeds, took care of the growing crops, harvested them, and made use of them. Also, captured young animals were tamed. They grew and gave birth to young ones, fed them and later killed them and used them as meat. The tools used by the early man for cultivating crops include wooden sticks with burnt ends and sharp edges. While the tools used for hunting animals include stones, bow and arrows strong sticks and ropes.

 

In the history of Agriculture four stages are very pronounced. These are :

i. Hunting and gathering stage: The early men went about gathering fruits ,leaves, roots of wild plants and hunting wild animals in other to obtain daily food. They used primitive tools likes stones, bows and arrows , traps and ropes. It is a very dangerous way to obtain food.

ii. Subsistence Farming stage: The primitive man found out that whenever he threw away seeds of recognized useful plants around his house, the seeds grew into new and useful plants He also found that he could capture some young animals or their pregnant mothers and look after the young ones when they were born. This is the beginning of crop and animal farming to take care of their family

iii. Cash crop production stage: As time went by primitive man learn how to grow his crops and rear the animals in a better way. He began to produce cash crops.

iv. Commercial Farming stage: This is the stage when men started producing crop and animals on large scale not only for family needs but also for sale.

EVALUATION

  • Explain the Origin of agriculture?
  • How were the early men surviving before the cultivation of crops started?
  • Mention some of the food they were eating.
  • How did planting of crops start?
  • How were the animals tamed by early farmers?
  • What were the tools of early farmers?
  • Mention the four stages in the development of Agriculture

Sub–Topic 2: Improvement of Agriculture from Primitive to modern Agriculture.

The men were usually out for hunting while the women helped to prepare the gathered crops and dressed the animals for food. As man increases in knowledge and technology, better-improved crops and animals were produced. Also, improved farming equipments such as cutlasses, spade, hoes and wheelbarrows replaced the primitive tools. More improvement being made gave rise to machines such as tractors, bulldozer, modern implements, etc that are now used these days.

EVALUATION

  • Explain how primitive agriculture grew to modern farming methods and improved farm machines

Weekend Assignment.

Sketch two primitive tools and two improved metals tools used by the early man.

REFERENCE TEXTS:

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et a

 

 

Presentation

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

Conclusion :

 

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.

 

Assignment :

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about

Types of Agriculture

 

 

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