Identifying parts of flowering plants Leaf, Root, Stem, flower (function of the parts required).

Subject :

 

Topic :

Crop Plant Forms- Identifying parts of flowering plants- Leaf, Root, Stem, flower (function of the parts required).

Class :

jss1  / Basic 7


 

Term :

third term

 

Week :

Week 6

Reference Materials :  .

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okaro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.

 

 

Instructional Materials :..

  • samples of
  • The leaves
  • The flowers
  • The branches
  • The stem
  • The roots

 

 

Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

 

Forms/ Branches of Agriculture .(Livestock)

 

Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

    1. Outline two functions each of
    • The leaves
    • The flowers
    • The branches
    1. State any 3 functions each of the stem and the root.

 

 

Content :

 

TOPIC: CROP PLANT FORM.

CONTENT: i. Plant parts

ii. Functions of each plant parts.

Sub – Topic 1: Different parts of plants

Plant form refers to the shape of a plant. Flowering plants have two regions: the shoot region, which is found above the ground level and the root region which is found below the ground level.

PARTS OF A FLOWERING PLANTS

A flowering crop plant has the following parts

  • The leaves
  • The flowers
  • The branches
  • The stem
  • The roots

Flowers, leaves, branches and stem comprise the shoot region or system while the different roots comprise the root regions system.

EVALUATION

Differentiate between shoot system and root system and name their parts.

 

 

 

 

PARTS OF FLOWERING PLANTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

CONTENT

  1. Parts of Flowering Plant and their Functions
  2. Important Terms Related to Flowering Plants

 

Parts of a Flowering Plant

A flowering plant is made up of two parts, namely;

  1. the root system
  2. the shoot system

1. Root System:

The root system refers to the portion of the plant which develops inside the soil. The root has many tiny structures on it called the root hairs through which water, mineral salts and other nutrients are absorbed by the plant through a process known as osmosis.

The root system is divided into two main types namely;

  1. Tap/main root
  2. Fibrous/adventitious

A Labelled Diagram of a Flowering Plant

Functions of the Root

(i) Anchorage: for holding the plant firmly to the ground.

(ii) Nutrient absorption: Roots absorbs water and mineral elements from the soil which are then pass unto other plant parts. This is the most important function of the root to the plant.

(iii) Storage: In some plants the roots acts as storage organs e.g carrot, cassava, etc.

(iv) Reproduction: Some plants used their roots for vegetative propagation e.g. bread fruit, sweet potato, citrus etc.

(v) Nutrient fixation: Roots of leguminous crops harbors some nitrogen fixing bacteria which helps to convert atmospheric nitrogen into soil nitrate for plant use.

(vi) Erosion control: Root of grasses help to bind soil particles together thus preventing erosion.

2. Shoot System:

The part of the plant that grows upright above the ground is the shoot. It is made up of the stem, branches, leaves, flowers, buds, fruits and seeds. This parts form both the vegetative and reproductive organs of the plants.

The vegetative parts consists of the stem, branches, leaves, buds while the flowers are the reproductive organs.

The Stem

This is the part that supports the leaves, fruits, flowers, and seeds. There are different types of stems

  1. Erect stem: These grow vertically from the ground up e.g. cassava, mango, etc.
  2. Runner stem: These grow along the surface of the ground e.g. sweet potato.
  3. Rhizome stem: These grow horizontally underground e.g. ginger.
  4. Stem tuber: This has an enlarged underground portion for food storage e.g. yam.
  5. Climbing stem (climbers): These twines or coils around an erect stem or stake e.g. pumpkin

 

 

Sub – Topic 2 Functions of the parts of a plant

The leaves: The leaves of a plant perform the following functions.

  • Manufacture food through the process of photosynthesis
  • Some leaves store food e.g. onions, cabbage, waterleaf.
  • Some leaves are used for propagation e.g. Bryophyllium
  • The leaves permit air to enter leaves the plant through the stomata.
  • The leaves give the shape of the plant.

The flowers: The functions of the flowers include the following.

  • Bright scented flowers attracts insects for pollination
  • The flowers produce the fruits and seeds
  • Some plant flowers are eaten by man
  • Use for decoration/they adds beauty to the plants.
  • They release sweet odour.

The branches: The function of the branches includes the following

  • They help to hold the leaves and fruits in shape
  • Some plant branches are used for propagation.

The stem: The functions of the include:

  • They help to transfer food nutrients from the roots up to the leaves and flowers.
  • Also, it brings down the manufactured food form the leaves to other parts of the body
  • They are used for propagation e.g. cassava stem
  • It carries the branches, leaves and flower
  • Some plant stems store food e.g. yam, Irish potato and sugar cane.

The root: The functions of the roots include

  • It holds the plant firmly to the ground
  • It absorbs minerals and water from the soil.
  • Some plant roots store food e.g. cassava and carrot
  • Some plant roots are medicinal.

Diagrams

Parts of flowering plants

Leaf Flower Stem Branches Fruits

EVALUATION

  1. Outline two functions each of
  • The leaves
  • The flowers
  • The branches
  1. State any 3 functions each of the stem and the root.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MONOCOTYLEDONOUS AND DICOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

CONTENT

  1. Classification of Crops based on Crop Plant Forms
  2. Monocotyledonous Crops e.g. maize, guinea corn
  3. Dicotyledonous Crops e.g. beans, melon
  4. Differences between Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons

 

Classification of Crops based on Crop Plant Forms

A crop is any plant that has a useful purpose or economic value.

Crop plants are grouped into two forms based on the structure of their seeds or the number of seed leaf it contains. Seed leaf is otherwise known as cotyledon.

Food for germinating seed is stored in the cotyledon.

Monocotyledonous Plants

These are plants with one seed leaf or cotyledons e.g. oil palm, coconut, banana, plantain, pineapple, date-palm, garlic, sugar-cane, cereals e.g. wheat, millet, rice, maize, sorghum, rye, barley, oats and all grasses e.g. guinea grass, carpet grass, etc.

 

Characteristics of Monocotyledonous Plants

  1. They have single erect stem without branches.
  2. They have fibrous roots.
  3. The stem have scattered vascular bundles.
  4. They are elongated with parallel venation
  5. They have flowers that do not have scent and are not easy to notice.
  6. They possess one seed leaf.
  7. The leaves are long and narrow.
  8. Leaf stalk or petiole is absent.
  9. Flowers are usually pollinated by wind.
  10. Germination of seed is hypogeal i.e the cotyledon is retained below the soil.

Dicotyledonous Plants

These are plants with two seed leaves or cotyledons. They include most trees e.g. kola, cocoa, cashew, orange, mango, guava, pawpaw, silk cotton, Iroko, most vegetables e.g tomato, okro, melon, pepper, roots and tubers e.g cassava, sweet potato, yam etc and legumes such as soya-beans, cowpea, groundnuts, pigeon pea, etc.

Characteristics of Dicotyledons Plants

  1. Germination of seed is epigeal i.e the cotyledon is raised above the soil surface.
  2. Flowers are usually colourful, attractive and scented.
  3. They have two seed leaf or cotyledon.
  4. They possess taproot system.
  5. Leaves are short and broad.
  6. Leaves are with net veination.
  7. Have leaf stalk or petiole.
  8. Possesses main stem with several branches.
  9. Flowers are usually pollinated by insect and other animals.
  10. The stem has vascular bundles in ring form.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Give five examples each of monocots and dicots.
  2. State three characteristics each of monocots and dicots.

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment:

Students to get any of the part of the plant, identify and draw it, and write its functions

Junior secondary Agriculture (workbook 1)byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al page 5-7,16.

REFERENCE TEXTS:

  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okaro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.

 

Presentation

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

Evaluation :

 

Conclusion :

 

The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.

 

Assignment :

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about

 

Crop Plant Forms

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