Forms/ Branches of Agriculture (Crops).

Subject :

Agricultural Science

Topic :

Forms/ Branches of Agriculture (Crops).

Class :

JSS 1  / Basic  7


Term :

First term


Week :



  • Intensive Agricultural Science for J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okaro.
  • Essentials of Agricultural Science for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest Chukwudi Anie.
  • Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
  • Prescribed Agricultural Science for J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.



Previous Knowledge :

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Types of Agriculture


Behavioural Objectives :  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • mention scope of agriculture
  • Why is agriculture regarded as a science subject?
  • List eight branches of agriculture.



Content :





i. Scope of Agriculture

ii. Forms of Agriculture.


Sub Topic 1: Scope of Agriculture.

Agriculture involves more than just planting of crops and rearing of animals. It is broad in scope. It is made up of many branches of science. The study of agriculture involves the biology of plants and animals, the Chemistry and Physics of soils, mathematics and other areas. Hence, the study of agriculture as a subject is regarded as agricultural science.

The scope and branches of agriculture includes Basic agriculture, Animal science, soil, crop science, Horticulture, fishery, forestry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Veterinary machine and Agricultural Engineering.

Basic agriculture/agricultural education deals with the study of agricultural science as a subject i.e the teaching of agriculture in schools. A specialist in this area is called agricultural science teacher/lecturer.

Animal science deals with the study of the various farm animals. A specialist in this area is called animal scientist.

Soil science deals with the study of the types of soils. A specialist in this area is called a soil scientist .

Crop science deals with the study of the various type of crops that are cultivated farmers. A specialist in this area is called a crop scientist. Crop science is divided into three: Agronomy(the study of crops and soil ), Pathology(the study of plant and animal diseases), Entomology(the study of insects and pests).

Horticulture deals with of flowers and fruits. Horticulture is divided into three: Pomology (the study of fruits), Floriculture(the study of vegetables), Floriculture(the study of flowers). A specialist in this area is

Called a Horticulturist.

Fishery deals with rearing of fish and other aquatic organisms e.g. fish, crabs, crayfish, shrimps, etc. A specialist in this area is called a fishery officer.

Forestry deals with forest trees and forest management . A specialist in this area is called a forest officer or forest guard.

Agricultural economics deals with how to run agriculture as a profitable business. A specialist in this area is called agricultural economist.

Agricultural extension deals with the carrying of information from the research stations to the farmers in the rural areas. A specialist in this area is called extension officer or extension agent.

Agricultural engineering deals with the study of agricultural tools and machines used in agriculture. A specialist in this area known as agricultural engineer.

Veterinary medicine deals with the disease of farm animals. A specialist in this area is called a veterinarian (Veterinary doctor).


  • Why is agriculture regarded as a science subject?
  • List eight branches of agriculture.


A. Crop farming: It involves the production of different types of crops. They are mostly used as food for man, feed for animals and raw materials for industries Examples of such crops(annual) include maize, rice, mille, sorghum, yam, potatoes, pepper, Soya-bean, groundnut, tomatoes, okra, etc.

Other farmers practice the growing of perennial or permanent crops such as cocoa, oil palm, coffee, rubber, citrus, cashew, kola, guava, mango etc which are also known as cash crops. The system of cropping on a piece of land varies from one place to another and from one farmer to the other. Those who engage in commercial farming for profit making often adopt mono-cropping system (i.e. growing of only one type of crop on the same piece of land at the same time), while most local farmers prefer the growing of different crops on the same piece of land (mixed cropping).

B. Horticulture (Ornamental Plants)

Horticulture is a form of agriculture, which deals with the growing of different kinds of vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants. The vegetable crops include , okra, tomato, pumpkin, cabbage, cucumber, egg plant, water leaves, spinach, bitter leaves, amaranthus etc. Examples of fruits include cashew, citrus, mango, avocado pear, banana, pawpaw, apple, guava etc, while ornamental crops are commonly grown for the beautification of the environment .They include pride of Barbados, hibiscus, croton, zinnia, ixora, queen of the night, and rose flowers, etc

vegetables and fruits are source of minerals and vitamins to human bodies, ornamental plants are very useful for landscaping , attractive parks, gardens, buildings, place of worship, hotels, streets, etc.


Fishery (fish farming) refers to production of fish and other aquatic organisms, either for domestic use or profit oriented venture.

Types of Fish good for fish farming

  • Heterobranchus
  • Tilapia
  • Gynacus
  • Clarias

Important of Fish

  • Good Source of Protein
  • Contains lesser cholesterol than meat
  • Demand for fish is very high – for both rich and poor
  • It is recommended for dieting and some vegetarians who do not eat meat

Requirements for Fish farming.

  • Pond (Earthen concrete, plastic or galvanized tank can be used as pond
  • Source of water could be natural stream, lake, borehole water
  • Fingerlings (livestock)
  • Feeds e.g. plankton
  • Fertilizers


  • What is crop farming?
  • State the difference between annual and perennial crops.
  • What cropping system do the local farmers that are growing different crops on the same piece of land apply?
  • List 10 vegetable crops common in your locality.
  • List 5 ornamental plants commonly used for beautifying the environment like school, church.
  • With two example each, state the difference between fruit vegetable and leaf vegetable.

Weekend Assignment:

Junior secondary Agriculture (workbook 1) byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al pages

Visit the school fish pond and find out the names of fish there in.




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise



Conclusion :


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written. He or she does the necessary corrections when the need arises.


Assignment :

Prepare for the next lesson by reading about



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