FIRST TERM E-NOTES FOR J.S.S. ONE HOME ECONOMICS
WEEK ONE TO WEEK THIRTEEN
SCHEME OF WORK
||Introduction to home economics; definition/meaning of home economics, areas of home economics, relationship of home economics to other subjects.
||Home economics and National Development; career opportunities in home economics, requirements for career in home economics, importance of home economics
||The human body: structure and parts of the hair and eye, function of the hair and eyes, care and grooming of the hair and eyes
||The human body: structure and parts of the nose and ear, functions of the nose and ear, care and grooming of the nose and ear
||The human body: structure and parts of the skin, functions of the skin, care of the skin
||The human body: Teeth, Hands and Feet, functions of the Teeth, Hands and Feet, care of the Teeth, Hands and Feet
||Good Posture and exercise; definition/meaning, importance, rule or guidelines for maintaining good posture and exercising the body.
||Healthy feeding and eating practices
||Healthy feeding and eating practices; effects of unhealthy feeding practices and eating habits, food additives
||Healthy feeding and eating practices; food contaminants, drug abuse, effects of drug abuse on the body.
||Fatigue, rest and sleep; meaning of rest and sleep, causes and effects of fatigue, prevention of fatigue, importance of rest and sleep
|12 & 13
||Revision and Examination.
TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO HOME ECONOMICS
DEFINITIONS OF HOME-ECONOMICS
Home-economics can also be defined as a field of study which teaches us how to manage ourselves, our resources and our household. It therefore deals with the management of material and non-material things in the family e.g people, money, food e.t.c. Home-economics can be define as the study of cooking, sewing, laundry and all matters relating to the management of the home.
AREAS OF HOME ECONOMICS
- Foods and nutrition
- Clothing and textiles
- Home management
- Child development
- Family living
FOODS AND NUTRITION: this deals with the study of food and nutrients, it include food processing, preservation, preparation, management and service e.t.c. It also prepares people for employment in foods and nutrition related jobs.
CLOTHING AND TEXTILES: deals with textiles, designing and sewing of clothes. It also include wise selection of clothes, personal hygiene and good grooming.
HOME MANAGEMENT deals with the processes of using those things (resources) which the family has to obtain the things needed by the family, such as using money, time and energy which the family has to obtain the family needs like foods, clothing, house e.t.c.
CHILD DEVELOPMENT: deals with how children grow and develop, it also deals with how to care for the children properly.
FAMILY LIVING: deals with how people live in the family, it teaches people how to maintain good relationship in the family. Other areas of home-economics include: (a) Consumer education (b) Housing and interior decoration.
IMPORTANCE OF HOME-ECONOMICS
- It teaches people how to live a healthy, good and happy life
- it prepares boys and girls for home making
- It teaches people how to care for their home
- It helps people to develop their abilities
- It teaches people how to plan, cook, serve and eat good food
- it teaches people how to live a happy life in the family
- it enables people to be self-reliance
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOME ECONOMICS AND OTHER RELATED SUBJECTS
Home economics draws knowledge from many other subjects. It unifies the knowlede drawn and uses it to form its own body of knowledge. Here are some examples;
- Chemistry: teaches us about the nutrients in foods we eat, their properties and effects of heat on them.
- Physics: helps us to understand the working of the refrigerator and electricity in the home.
- Mathematics: teaches us how to determine quantities and do calculations.
- Biology: helps us to know about plants and animals, food groups, different part of our body and how they function.
- Economics: teaches us how to manage personal and family resources to meet our needs and goals.
Other subjects includes: Sociology, History, Geography, Fine and applied arts, Agriculture, Engineering e.t.c.
TOPIC: HOME ECONOMICS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUB-TOPIC: Careers in Home economics
CAREERS IN HOME ECONOMICS
- Foods and Nutrition:
- Food technologist
- Food researchers
- Home Management:
- Home keepers
- Welfare workers
- Interior decorator
- Laundry specialist.
- Clothing and Textiles
- Dress makers
- Cloth retailers
- Fashion designers
- Embroidery maker.
HOME ECONOMICS CAREER REQUIREMENTS
Home economics careers require education at different levels of education. Home economics is offered as a single subject at the Basic Education level (Basic 1-9 / Primary and Junior Secondary School) At the Senior Secondary level, it is offered as three different subjects foods and nutrition, clothing and textiles and home management.
At tertiary level, it is offered a single subject but needs certain subject requirements for admission into these institutions: college of education, Polytechnics and Universities.
- mention 5 areas of home Economics
- mention 5 importance of home economics.
- List three requirements for admitting students into home economics department in the higher institutions of learning.
TOPIC: THE HUMAN BODY
SRUCTURES, PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY
The human body is made up of different parts. Some parts are inside the body while others are outside. Some parts of the body are the head, eyes, nose, ears, teeth, skin, hands, fingers, nails and feet.
SUB-TOPIC: THE HAIR AND THE EYES
Each hair grows from a narrow tube in the skin called hair follicle. Each follicle has a tiny oil gland near its base. The gland produces oil that lubricates the hair and softens the skin around it.
FUNCTIONS OF THE HAIR
- it protects the head
- it keeps the head warm in cold weather
- it improves personal appearance and adds beauty to a person
WAYS OF CARING FOR THE HAIR
The hair can be cared for by:
- Washing or shampooing the hair frequently. Short hair can be washed daily while long hair can be washed at least once a week.
- Combing or brushing the hair thoroughly to remove dirt and dry scales (dandruff). It also stimulates the circulation of blood and keep the hair healthy.
- Oiling the hair regularly to prevent dryness of the hair and scalp. Excessive dryness could lead to hair damage.
TOPIC: STRUCTURE OF THE EYE
the eye is one of the five sense organs . It is for seeing. The eye is made up of different parts. Each part performs a special function. An understanding of the different parts of the eye will help you take good care of your eyes
PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE EYES
||Prevents sweat from running down into the eyes
|The eye lashes
||Protects the eyes from dust and dirt
|The eye lids
||Can close to protect the eye from foreign object
|The eye balls
||These are the organs of sight. Each is connected to the brain by the sensory nerve called optical nerve
||A protective layer. It keeps dust and dirt from passing through the pupil of the eyes.
||The coloured part of the eye. It surrounds the pupil.
||The hole in front of the eyeball through which light rays pass into the eye
||A glass-like part of the eye, it focuses the light rays into one spot on the retina thus forming the image.
||A light sensitive spot where images are formed
||Pours out tear over the front of the eyes. The tear washes away any dust which enters the eye.
CARE OF THE EYES
- Do not look directly at an electric light or the sun
- Use good light when reading or doing any work such as sewing. Poor light strains the eyes
- Do not wash your eyes with disinfectant unless on Doctor’s advice
- Do not fix your eyes to watching television, reading books, writing or sewing for a very long period. Relax the eyes by looking up from time to time.
- Eat food rich in vitamin A such as carrots, green vegetables and red palm oil.
- Avoid using another person’s glasses.
Common eye defects
- Long sightedness; results in inability to see objects that are too near but objects that are far can be seen
- Short sightedness; result in inability to see objects that are far away but objects that are near can be seen.
- Night blindness; results in inability to see in the dark
EVALUATION: mention 6 part of the eye and their functions
ASSIGNMENT: Draw and label the structure of the eye.
TOPIC: THE HUMAN BODY
SUB-TOPIC: THE NOSE AND EAR
The nose is the organ of smell. The very top of the nose consists of bone. The rest is made of cartilage, small muscles and skin lined with a fine moist mucous membrane. The lining of the membrane contains small glands which produce watery secretion. The secretion keeps the lining moist. The nose is divided into two nostrils by a partition called septum. The nerves of smell which run from the nose to the brain are called olfactory nerves there are tiny hairs at the entrance of the nose. They act as filters for the air that goes to the lungs.
FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE
- It is the sense organ of smell
- It acts as a passage or channel through which the air we breathe passes in and out of the lungs
- The air entering the lungs is filtered and warmed by the tiny hairs at the entrance of the nostrils.
CARE OF THE NOSE
- Avoid pushing objects into the nose
- Avoid picking or poking the nose with finger nail or any object
- Blow the nose gently and avoid the habit of sniffing
- Avoid plucking the hair in the nose
- When it is necessary, the nose should be cleaned with clean handkerchief or a clean piece of soft tissue paper
- See a doctor for the treatment of any nose infection
THE EAR (Structure)
The ear is divided into three parts; the outer ear, the middle ear and inner ear. The outer ear is the part we see. It looks like a funnel. It picks sounds or vibrations. The vibrations are carried to the eardrum, which is between the outer ear and the middle ear. The sound then passes through the auditory nerve. There are tiny hairs at the entrance of the outer ear. These trap dust and any tiny insects or objects that try to enter the inner parts of the ear. The passage also contains wax which further helps to trap the dust and other objects.
Functions of the ear
- It is the sense organ for hearing
- It helps us to maintain balance.
CARE OF THE EAR
- Avoid putting any sharp object into the ear.
- Wash the outer ear daily and dry carefully with clean towel.
- Do not attempt to reach your internal ear with an object
- Remove small excess of wax in the ear canal gently with cotton swab
- Any form of ear-each should be reported to the Doctor.
- List the different parts into which the ear can be divided
- Mention the functions of the ear
- State the purposes of the hair in the nose
Draw and label the structure of the ear.
THIRD TERM EXAMINATION FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL JSS 1 HOME ECONOMICS
TOPIC: THE HUMAN BODY
SUB-TOPIC: STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN
The skin is the outer covering of the body. It performs very important function, it is necessary to understand the structure of the skin and how to take care of it. The skin is made up of two main layers, viz:
- The Epidermis: this is the outer layer; it has no blood vessel or nerves. It is covered with hair and tiny holes called sweat pores. Sweat passes out through the pores.
- The Dermis: this is the inner layer of the skin. It is made up of the following:
- Sweat gland which produce sweat
- Oil gland which produces oil that keeps the skin and hair soft and fresh.
- Blood vessels and nerves which keep the skin healthy and help it to perform its functions
- Fat deposit which reduce heat loss from the body.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN
- It protects the body from bacterial infection (germs), poor weather and injury
- It helps to keep the body temperature normal
- It helps the body to get rid of waste product through sweating
- It also keeps the body warm in cold weather
- When the sun shines on the skin, vitamin D is produced by the body.
CARE OF THE SKIN
- Wash your whole body daily and more than once
- Do not use a bleaching cream
- Use mild skin cream and oil
- Always have a bath after serious game or exercise to avoid body odour
- Avoid using other people’s towel and clothes
- Use good toilet soap, soft sponge and clean water
TYPES OF SKIN
- Normal skin
- Dry skin
- Oily skin
- Combination skin (i.e oil and dry skin)
- Mention four functions of the skin
- list the types of skin
Draw and label the structure of the skin
SS 3 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE ECONOMICS
TOPIC: THE HUMAN BODY
SUB-TOPIC: THE TEETH, HANDS AND FEET
Human beings grow two sets of teeth. The first is the milk or temporary teeth (during childhood) These are 24 in number. They loosen and fall out. They are replaced by the permanent teeth (in adulthood). The permanent teeth are usually 32 in number.
Structure of the Teeth
- The crown: the part of the tooth projecting above the gum
- The root: the part buried in the jaw-bone
- The neck: the space between the crown and the root
- The dentine: the tough centre of the tooth which surrounds and protects the pulp cavity
- The pulp cavity: contains blood vessels and nerves
- The enamel: a very hard substance which covers the crown of the teeth.
TYPES OF TEETH AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
- The incisors; these are in the center of the front of the jaw. They are used for cutting off lumps of food. They are usually eight in number.
- The canine; these are beside the incisors. They are pointed and used for tearing food. They are sometimes called ‘dog’ teeth. They are usually four in number.
- Premolars; these are next to the canine. Each has one or more points for cutting. They may also have flat surfaces for grinding food. They are usually eight in number.
- Molars; these are behind the premolars. They are similar to the premolars. They are however only present in permanent dentition, children do not therefore have molars. They are usually twelve in number.
DAILY CARE OF THE TEETH
- Clean your teeth every morning and at bed time with either a clean chewing stick or tooth brush with paste.
- Avoid using your teeth as nut-crackers or opener for soft drinks and beer bottles.
- Eat balanced diets for strong healthy teeth. Some important foods are milk, fruit, fish, meat and other sources of calcium.
- Avoid extremely hot and cold food. These may crack the enamel leading to tooth decay.
- Do not eat sweets or highly sweet foods which may cause tooth or dental decay.
- Exercise your teeth by eating fairly hard foods like maize, carrots, coconuts. e.t.c.
TOPIC: THE HANDS AND THE FEET
The hands, fingers, nails and feet are very important parts of the body. We even put them into our mouths. The legs are in close contact with the ground, dust and dirt. They can also become hiding places for disease and germs. The hands and the feet are parts of the upper and lower limbs. The hand starts from the wrist. It is made up of the palm, the fingers and the nails. The first finger is called thumb. The leg starts from the ankle and consists of the heel, sole, toes and nails.
Functions Of Hands And Feet
- The hands and fingers are used for touching things.
- They are also used for doing different types of work
- The legs give us support
- The legs are used for walking about
- The legs also perform many other useful activities, such as playing games, dancing, e.t.c.
Care Of The Hands
- Wash the hands after using the toilet and after each meal.
- Always wash the hands with mild soap
- Always scrub around and under the finger nail using face towel or soft sponge
- Rinse the hand with clean water
- Dry properly with clean cloth
- Apply a little hand lotion or cream to keep the hand soft
- Keep the finger nails well-trimmed and clean.
Care Of The Feet
- Wash the feet thoroughly and as often as possible and then dry them carefully. Always pay enough attention to the part between the toes.
- Remove any rough dry skin around the sole of the feet by rubbing with a pumice stone.
- Rinse properly and dry with a clean towel.
- Apply a coating of cream, lotion or petroleum jelly on the feet after washing to prevent dryness.
- Keep the toe nails short and clean so that they do not harbor germs.
- Avoid the habit of walking bare-footed especially on unpaved ground.
- Wear good-fitting and comfortable shoes.
Note: Manicuring: is the process of caring for the hand and finger nails while
Pedicure: this is the care for the feet and the toe nails
- What is the dental formula for man
- Differentiate between manicure and pedicure
- Mention three materials used for the production of foot wears
Draw and label the structure of a tooth.
TOPIC: GOOD POSTURE AND EXERCISE
DEFINITION AND MEANING OF GOOD POSTURE
Posture means keeping the natural balance of the body aligned. It is the way the body parts are help up or carried when we walk, stand, sit or work. In good posture, the back is kept straight, shoulders pull well, back and hand held high.
IMPORTANCE OF GOOD POSTURE
- Good posture enhances appearance
- It gives the body a comfortable and relaxed feeling
- It promotes good health
- Good posture gives dignity, self-confidence and respect
- It allows fitness of clothes.
GOOD READING POSTURE
- Use a good table and chair of comfortable height
- Let the chair provides support for your hips and lower back
- Do not bend too low towards the book
- Keep the legs under the table and hands comfortably on the table.
GOOD STANDING POSTURE
- Always stand firmly in both feet so that both of them can carry your weight
- Do not place your weight on one leg
- Stand with the head up and chest out
- Tuck in your tummy or abdomen
- Straighten your shoulder, that is, hold it erect
- Avoid tight clothes e.g. tight girdles, ill-fitting shoes. They prevent easy movement.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF EXERCISE
Exercise is the acts of making the body perform some activities such as jumping, swimming, running e.t.c. Because the human body is designed for movement, it needs regular exercise.
IMPORTANCE OF EXERCISE
- It increases the flow of blood to the muscles
- It makes the muscles strong, firm and healthy
- It helps the whole body to keep fit and healthy
- It stimulates appetite
- It encourages sound sleep and growth
- Flow of energy to the body is increased
- The risk of heart disease is reduced s cholesterols level can be lowered.
GUIDELINES FOR EXERCISING THE BODY
- Build your exercise routine around activities you enjoy
- Exercise the body regularly
- Exercise 20 to 30 minutes a day
- Exercise daily or at least 3 to 5 times a week
- Before you begin any exercise programme, check with your doctor to make sure the routine you have chosen is safe for you.
- Each work out should begin with warm up activities such as walking, followed by gentle stretching
- Have a cool down period after exercise with slower movements and additional stretching
- Never use drugs for exercise and sports.
- Define posture
- Mention four functions of exercise
- Sate 5 guidelines for exercising the body
WEEK: EIGHT & NINE
TOPIC: HEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES
MEANING OF FEEDING HABITS
Feeding or eating habits are your everyday patterns of eating. It involves the tendency to reach out for foods whenever you are hungry. These habits vary from one person to another and from one locality to another. But it is good to maintain healthy feeding habit by choosing foods which are nourishing and properly prepared.
Healthy feeding habit results from choosing nutritious food in a conscious way.
HEALTHY FEEDING PRACTICES
- Eat a variety of foods. Eat food from all the food groups
- Balance the food you eat with physical activity
- Always eat three balanced meals every day
- Eat regularly and do not skip meals
- Choose nutritious foods in a conscious way
- Choose diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits
- Choose a diet that is moderate in sugar
- Make use of food in season
- Choose diet that is moderate in salt and sodium
- Choose diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol.
HEALTHY EATING PRACTICES
- Sit upright at the dining table but do not allow your body to touch the table
- Always wash your hands before and after meals
- Do not hurry over meal or eat too quickly.
- When eating take just enough food that can easily go into your mouth
- Chew your food properly
- Do not talk with food in your mouth
- Close your mouth when chewing food
- Never use knife to put food into your mouth
- Use cutlery properly
- Do not put too much food into the mouth at a time
- Do not stretch your hand over someone’s food in order to reach for salt or water
- Do not take food directly from the serving dish into your mouth except with traditional service
- Do not be greedy. Consider others when helping yourself with food
- Always be polite when eating or serving others.
EFFECTS OF HEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES
- It promotes good health
- It makes one look and feel better
- It makes one good and energetic
- It prevent one from getting some diseases later in life e.g. diabetes, obesity, heart diseases
- It makes the body better equipped to heal fast and properly, than a poorly nourished one.
- It makes the person is physically alert and mentally active.
EFFECTS OF UNHEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES
- Night blindness
- Under weight
- Over weight
- Stomach upset
Food additives are substances deliberately added to food to improve the appearance, colour, texture, flavour, nutritive value, aroma and taste and also to preserve the food. Examples African lemon grass, Curry, Bitter leaf (ewuro, shawaka onugbu), Thyme, Mustard, Tea bush (efirin, nchanwa, infang, amana), Sesame, African nutmeg, Cinnamom, Ginger, garlic, onion e.t.c.
USES OF FOOD ADDITIVES
- To improve the flavour of the food
- To improve the appearance and colour of the food
- To improve the taste of the food
- To excite appetite
- For garnishing and preservatives
TOPIC: HEALTHY FEEDING AND EATING PRACTICES
SUB-TOPIC: FOOD CONTAMINANTS AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
Harmful substances refer to contaminated drinks, foods and drugs which are unfit for human consumption.
EXAMPLES HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
- Fake products
- Expired products
- Exposed and uncovered products
- Impure water
- Poorly cooked foods
- Burnt food
- Stale food
- Rotten food
- Unripe fruits
EFFECTS OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN THE BODY
- It can become poisons in the body
- It may leads to serious sickness
- It may leads to death.
MEANING OF DRUG ABUSE
Drug abuse is the abnormal intake of drug or any other substances. It can also be described as the illegal or wrong use of drugs and other substances.
EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON HUMAN BEINGS
- Mental disorder
- Broken home
- Loss of jobs
- Abnormal behaviour
WEEK ELEVEN: REVISION
WEEK TWELVE: EXAMINATION