THE TEETH AND HUMAN SKIN.

Subject : 

Home Economics

 

 

Term :

First Term / 1st Term

 

 

Week:

Week 5

 

 

Class :

JSS 1 / Basic 7

 

 

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

THE NOSE AND EAR

in their previous classes

 

 

Topic :

THE TEETH AND HUMAN SKIN.

 

 

Behavioural objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • Write How many teeth does an adult have?
  • State the types of teeth and their functions.
  • Mention What are the two stages of teeth developed?
  • Explain four ways of taking care of the teeth.
  • List three types of skin.
  • Mention four functions of the skin.

 

 

Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures of different types of houses
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation

 

Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks

 

Content:

  1. Structure, functions, care and grooming of the teeth.
  2. Structure, functions, care and grooming of the human skin.

 

SUB-TOPIC I: Structure, functions, care and grooming of the teeth.         

 

The teeth are usually found in the mouth. They are the hard white objects inside the mouth that are used for biting, tearing, cutting and crushing of food. The human teeth develop in two stages namely milk teeth and permanent teeth. The milk /temporary teeth is the first set of teeth grown as children while the permanent teeth are those that replace the milk teeth when the individual is a full grown adult.

A full grown adult has 32 teeth.

 

Structure of the Tooth;

A tooth is made up of the crown, the root, neck, dentine, pulp cavity and enamel.

  1. The crown is the part of the tooth above the gum i.e. the part that shows when you open your mouth
  2. The neck is the area around the surface of the gum that separates the crown from the root.
  3. The dentine is the center of the tooth, which surrounds and protects the pulp cavity.
  4. The pulp cavity is the part that contains blood vessels and nerves.
  5. The root is the part buried in the jawbone.
  6. The enamel is a very hard substance that protects the dentine against heat and cold.

 

TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF TEETH

 

There are four major types of teeth in the adult human mouth. They are incisors canine, pre-molars, and molars.

  1. Incisors: these are the sharp teeth at the front of the mouth, used for cutting and biting. There are eight incisors in an adult mouth.
  2. Canines: these are the pointed teeth towards the front of the mouth immediately after the incisors. They are four.They are used for tearing meat.
  3. Pre-molar: these are the large flat surfaced teeth located next to the canine. They are eight in number. They are used for grinding food.
  4. Molars: these are located behind the pre-molars at the back of the mouth. They are used for chewing food and are twelve in number.

 

When you sum up the numbers of each type of teeth you get 32. The adult human being teeth are 32.

Care of the teeth

  1. Clean the teeth every morning and at bedtime with toothpaste and soft brush or clean chewing stick.
  2. Eat balanced diet for healthy teeth.
  3. Avoid eating very hot or very cold foods because they may damage the enamel.
  4. Rinse your mouth after each meal to remove remnants of food from your teeth.
  5. Do not pick your teeth with sharp objects such as pins, needles etc.
  6. Exercise your teeth by eating crispy foods.
  7. Avoid chewing sweets as they cause tooth decay.
  8. Do not open bottle tops or crack nut with your teeth.

Tooth infection.

Toothache– this is usually caused by bacteria or germs build up in the mouth as a result of leftover food particles from the mouth.

 

Tooth decay– sugars, sweets and starchy foods bring about tooth decay if their particles are left between the teeth.  Not chewing sweets can also help prevent tooth decay.

 

SUB-TOPIC II: Structure, functions, care and grooming of the human skin.

 

The skin is the outer covering of the human body. It contributes to the beauty of a person when properly cared for. When the skin is neglected, skin diseases may occur.

 

Structure of the skin

The skin has two layers: Epidermis (outer layer) and the Dermis (inner layer also called the true skin).

 

The Epidermis

The Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin. It is made up of dead cells; it has no blood vessels or nerves.

 

It has hairs and tiny holes called sweat pores or perspiration, sweat passes through the sweat pores.

 

The Dermis

The Dermis is the inner layer of the skin. It contains blood vessels and nerves, sweat glands, fat deposits, oil glands and hair roots. It is otherwise called true skin.

  1. The blood vessels and nerves help to keep the skin healthy and to perform its functions.
  2. The sweat glands produce sweat and send it out to the skin surface.
  3. Hair roots help to keep the hair fresh and soft.
  4. Oil glands produce oil that keeps the skin and hair fresh and soft.
  5. Fat deposits reduce the heat loss from the body.

Types of skin

Understanding the types of skin you have is very important because it will afford you the opportunity of learning how to care for it. There are 3 major types of skin, namely:

  1. Normal skin: this type of skin is soft, smooth, clear and without spots.
  2. Oily skin: this type of skin is greasy as a result of over secretion of oil from the oil gland.
  3. Dry skin: this type of skin feels rough and thin; it is sensitive and wrinkles easily. The skin flakes off in small dry particles from the forearm and the forehead. Dry weather, ageing, poor feeding, diseases and lack of care can cause dry skin.

 

Functions of the skin

  1. The skin serves as an excretory organ.
  2. It protects the body against harsh weather condition.
  3.    It helps keep the body temperature normal.
  4. It produces oil through the oil glands to lubricate the body surface.

 

 

for dry skin.

  1. Wash yourself after serious games or exercises to prevent body odour.
  2. Use mild skin creams or oils.
  3. Do not use other people’s bathing materials like sponge, towel or clothing.
  4. Avoid the use of bleaching creams so that your skin will not be damaged.
  5. Eat balanced diet and foods rich in milk, proteins, fruits, vegetables, cod liver oil.
  6. Treat skin diseases and problems immediately.

Skin infections/diseases 

Eczema

Pimples

Ring worm

Scabies

    Treatment

See a Dermatologist.

Skin injuries are different from skin diseases or infection.  Injuries are caused by accidents and examples are burns and scalds, cuts, stings.

 Burns are caused by dry heat e.g. candle flame, hot iron while scalds are caused by moist heat like steam, boiling liquid.

 

 

Presentation

 

The topic is presented step by step

 

Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics

 

Step 2.

He introduces the new topic

 

Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise

 

 

Conclusion

The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.

 

 

EVALUATION

  1. How many teeth does an adult have?
  2. State the types of teeth and their functions.
  3. What are the two stages of teeth developed?
  4. Enumerate four ways of taking care of the teeth.
  5. The nose is the sense organ for——-
  6.  The skin is made up of two layers namely ———- and ———.
  7.  Another name for Dermis is ———-
  8.  List three types of skin.
  9.  Mention four functions of the skin.
  10. State four ways of taking care of the skin