1. The cat _________ on the mat.
a) sat
b) set
c) sit
d) sate

2. We __________ a picnic last weekend.
a) has
b) had
c) have
d) having

3. She ___________ the book yesterday.
a) read
b) reads
c) reading
d) had read

4. My brother and I _________ to the zoo yesterday.
a) go
b) went
c) goes
d) going

5. The baby is ___________ in his crib.
a) laying
b) lied
c) laying
d) lying

6. They ___________ their homework before dinner.
a) finished
b) finish
c) finishing
d) finishes

7. The teacher _________ the students to be quiet during the test.
a) tells
b) telling
c) told
d) tell

8. We _________ to the beach every summer.
a) goes
b) go
c) going
d) went

9. John _________ his bike to school every day.
a) rides
b) ride
c) riding
d) rode

10. The children _________ playing in the park when it started to rain.
a) were
b) was
c) is
d) be

11. She _________ a beautiful song at the talent show.
a) sings
b) sing
c) sang
d) sung

12. The dog _________ the bone buried in the backyard.
a) finds
b) found
c) find
d) finding

13. We _________ a delicious dinner last night.
a) eats
b) ate
c) eat
d) eating

14. The birds _________ their nests in the trees.
a) builds
b) building
c) built
d) build

15. I _________ my friend at the mall yesterday.
a) sees
b) saw
c) see
d) seen




Question tags are short phrases or statements that we add at the end of a sentence to turn it into a question. They are used to confirm or seek agreement, confirmation, or information from the listener. In question tags, we usually use an auxiliary verb (or a helping verb) and a pronoun that matches the subject of the sentence.

Let’s take a look at some examples:

1. You like ice cream, don’t you?
– In this example, the sentence “You like ice cream” is transformed into a question by adding the question tag “don’t you?” at the end. The pronoun “you” matches the subject of the sentence, and the auxiliary verb “do” (in the form of “don’t”) is used.

2. She is going to the park, isn’t she?
– The sentence “She is going to the park” becomes a question by adding the question tag “isn’t she?” at the end. Here, the pronoun “she” matches the subject, and the auxiliary verb “is” is used in the negative form “isn’t.”

3. We should study for the test, shouldn’t we?
– The sentence “We should study for the test” is turned into a question by adding the question tag “shouldn’t we?” at the end. The pronoun “we” matches the subject, and the auxiliary verb “should” is used in the negative form “shouldn’t.”

4. They won’t be late, will they?
– In this example, the sentence “They won’t be late” is transformed into a question by adding the question tag “will they?” at the end. The pronoun “they” matches the subject, and the auxiliary verb “will” is used.

5. He can swim, can’t he?
– The sentence “He can swim” becomes a question by adding the question tag “can’t he?” at the end. Here, the pronoun “he” matches the subject, and the auxiliary verb “can” is used in the negative form “can’t.”

Remember, when the main sentence is positive, the question tag is often negative, and vice versa. Also, if the main verb is in the present tense, the question tag uses the auxiliary verb “do,” and if the main verb is in the past tense, the question tag uses the auxiliary verb “did.”


Read these sentences aloud. Think about the two parts.

Statement Question
I ate beans,

She bought two oranges,

They swept the room,

Carol sang a song,

He killed the snake,

He has gone,

Didn’t i?

Didn’t she?

Didbt they?

Didn’t she?

Didn’t he?

Hasn’t he?

Ade could not buy a pen,

She is not your enemy,

You don’t tell lies,

Our teacher was not wicked,

Could he?

Is she?

Do you?

Was he?


A sentence with a question tag has two parts. If the body (that is, the first part) is positive, the question tag will be negative and if the body is negative, the tag will be positive.


Supply the questions of the following sentences. Follow the example in exercise one.

Statement Question
  1. We ate all the food,
  2. We paid the fees,
  3. He bought the car,
  4. She cooked the food,
  5. I left the room,
  6. Biola ate the apple,
  7. Wale wrote a letter,
  8. Eze carried the basket,
  9. Fatima sold oranges,
  10. We came to school,


1. You don’t like coffee, __________?
a) do you?
b) don’t you?
c) isn’t it?
d) isn’t that?

2. He hasn’t finished his homework yet, __________?
a) hasn’t he?
b) has he?
c) didn’t he?
d) does he?

3. She is going to the party, __________?
a) isn’t she?
b) is she?
c) doesn’t she?
d) does she?

4. They won’t be late, __________?
a) won’t they?
b) will they?
c) aren’t they?
d) don’t they?

5. We shouldn’t forget to bring our umbrellas, __________?
a) should we?
b) shouldn’t we?
c) do we?
d) don’t we?

6. He can swim very well, __________?
a) can he?
b) can’t he?
c) does he?
d) doesn’t he?

7. You’ve seen that movie before, __________?
a) haven’t you?
b) isn’t it?
c) didn’t you?
d) wasn’t it?

8. She likes ice cream, __________?
a) does she?
b) doesn’t she?
c) isn’t it?
d) isn’t she?

9. They’ve already left, __________?
a) haven’t they?
b) isn’t it?
c) don’t they?
d) aren’t they?

10. You will remember to turn off the lights, __________?
a) will you?
b) won’t you?
c) do you?
d) don’t you?

11. She isn’t coming to the party, __________?
a) is she?
b) isn’t she?
c) does she?
d) doesn’t she?

12. They don’t like spicy food, __________?
a) do they?
b) don’t they?
c) does it?
d) doesn’t it?

13. He has a car, __________?
a) doesn’t he?
b) does he?
c) isn’t it?
d) isn’t he?

14. You didn’t see the accident, __________?
a) did you?
b) didn’t you?
c) does it?
d) doesn’t it?

15. She can speak French fluently, __________?
a) can she?
b) can’t she?
c) does she?
d) doesn’t she?




Read these sentences aloud

  1. Ngozi was ther, wasn’t she?

Yes, she was

  1. They were not busy, were they?

No, they weren’t

  1. My sister did not buy sugar, did she?

No, she didn’t

  1. You are a small boy, aren’t you?

Yes, I am

  1. Men don’t surrender easily, do they?

No, they don’t

  1. We agreed to meet here, didn’t we?
  2. Yes, we did


Study the table below and make twenty correct sentences from it:

My mother

Mrs. Sulaiman

The lady




a car, didn’t she?

The man

your father

Was lazy,



wasn’t he?
They Are busy,




aren’t they?




Sentence formation refers to the process of constructing grammatically correct sentences using words, phrases, and clauses. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought or idea.

Let’s break down the key components of sentence formation:

1. Subject: The subject is the part of the sentence that performs the action or is being described. It answers the question “Who?” or “What?” For example:
– John is my friend.
– The cat is sleeping.
In these sentences, “John” and “The cat” are the subjects.

2. Verb: The verb is the action word or state of being in a sentence. It describes what the subject is doing or its state of being. For example:
– Lisa sings beautifully.
– They are playing in the park.
In these sentences, “sings” and “are playing” are the verbs.

3. Object: The object is the part of the sentence that receives the action of the verb. It answers the question “Whom?” or “What?” For example:
– He bought a new car.
– She ate an apple.
In these sentences, “a new car” and “an apple” are the objects.

4. Adjectives: Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns (people, places, things, or ideas). They provide additional information about the subject or object in a sentence. For example:
– The tall man is my father.
– She has a beautiful garden.
In these sentences, “tall” and “beautiful” are the adjectives.

5. Adverbs: Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They describe how, when, or where an action takes place. For example:
– He runs quickly.
– She speaks softly.
In these sentences, “quickly” and “softly” are the adverbs.

6. Prepositions: Prepositions are words that show the relationship between nouns or pronouns and other words in a sentence. They indicate location, time, direction, or manner. For example:
– The book is on the table.
– She goes to school by bus.
In these sentences, “on” and “by” are the prepositions.

Remember, to form a complete sentence, you need a subject and a verb. Additional elements like objects, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions can be used to provide more details and make the sentence more interesting.

Here are some example sentences:
1. My dog barks loudly.
2. We went to the beach yesterday.
3. She is reading an interesting book.
4. The blue car drives fast.
5. The children played happily in the park.


  1. Read these sentences . Use the underlined words in sentences of your own.
  2. Put away all the toys
  3. Some children are very playful
  4. Give me any of the colours
  5. Each book costs $300
  6. None of the boys is in school

Make eight sentences from this table





of us Must bring

Can carry


A desk

A bag

A bell



Make ten meaningful sentence from this table:



All of you

Some of us

Most of them



In that home

At the nack of the room

In front of Titi

In class IV A.

Over there.

In the library



1. The __________ is playing in the garden.
a) boy
b) plays
c) run
d) playing

2. She __________ a delicious cake for her birthday.
a) baking
b) bakes
c) baked
d) bake

3. The students __________ quietly in the library.
a) talks
b) talked
c) talking
d) talk

4. They __________ to the zoo last weekend.
a) go
b) went
c) goes
d) going

5. The __________ is climbing the tree.
a) cat
b) climb
c) climbed
d) climbing

6. We __________ to the park every Sunday.
a) went
b) going
c) goes
d) go

7. The teacher __________ the lesson on the board.
a) writes
b) write
c) wrote
d) writing

8. I __________ my homework before dinner.
a) finish
b) finished
c) finishes
d) finishing

9. They __________ a picnic yesterday.
a) has
b) have
c) had
d) having

10. She __________ a new bike for her birthday.
a) buy
b) bought
c) buys
d) buying

11. The bird __________ its nest in the tree.
a) builds
b) build
c) built
d) building

12. He __________ his sister to the movies.
a) takes
b) take
c) took
d) taking

13. They __________ in the swimming pool.
a) swim
b) swam
c) swims
d) swimming

14. My mom __________ dinner for the family.
a) cooked
b) cooking
c) cook
d) cooks

15. We __________ the bus to school every morning.
a) takes
b) take
c) took
d) taking






1. Past Tense:
The past tense is used to talk about actions or events that have already happened in the past. We typically use past tense verbs to indicate that something occurred before the present moment. For regular verbs, we usually add “-ed” to the base form of the verb to form the past tense. Here are some examples:

– I played soccer with my friends yesterday.
– She finished her homework before dinner.
– We visited the museum last week.

2. Past Continuous Tense:
The past continuous tense is used to describe an ongoing action or event that was happening in the past. It is formed using the past tense of the verb “to be” (was/were) and the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb. The past continuous tense is often used to set the scene or provide background information in a narrative. Here are some examples:

– They were playing in the park when it started to rain.
– She was reading a book while her brother was watching TV.
– I was cooking dinner when the phone rang.

It’s important to note that the past continuous tense emphasizes the duration of an action or event in the past. It indicates that the action was in progress at a specific time in the past.

Here’s an additional example that shows the difference between the past tense and past continuous tense:

– Past Tense: I ate dinner at 7 o’clock yesterday.
– This sentence simply states that the action of eating dinner occurred in the past.

– Past Continuous Tense: I was eating dinner at 7 o’clock yesterday when the phone rang.
– This sentence indicates that the action of eating dinner was already in progress when another event (the phone ringing) interrupted it.

It’s important to practice using both the past tense and past continuous tense to become comfortable with expressing events and actions in the past. Pay attention to the time expressions that indicate the past, such as “yesterday,” “last week,” or specific times.


  1. Read these sentences:
  2. He came in at a point in time
  3. I was eating then
  4. He came in when I was eating
  5. When I was eating, he came in.

Now, write down the sentences below like sentence (iii) above.

  1. I saw him when he was going out
  2. We got there when they were fighting
  3. Dada left home, when his father was dying
  4. We felt bad when we were coming
  5. My teacher told me when he was leaving.

Study the table below and write six sentences from it

My father

Your sister

Your friend


Was Dancing





When I woke up

They bought the car

My mother came back

Complete the gaps in the sentence by using the appropriate form of verb in each of the brackets:

  1. I broke the cu when I was ______ (run).
  2. The man came when we were ________ (read)
  3. When tthey were praying, miracles ________ (happen)
  4. When he was running away, we _____ (laugh)
  5. I read the book when they were ______ (sleeping)


1. They ________ to the beach last summer.
a) went
b) go
c) goes
d) going

2. While I was ________ my homework, my sister was watching TV.
a) do
b) doing
c) did
d) done

3. She ________ her favorite book yesterday.
a) reads
b) reading
c) read
d) readed

4. They were ________ soccer when it started to rain.
a) plays
b) played
c) playing
d) play

5. We ________ our grandparents last weekend.
a) visit
b) visiting
c) visited
d) visits

6. I was ________ in the park when I saw my friend.
a) play
b) played
c) playing
d) plays

7. While she was ________ the dishes, her brother was cleaning the living room.
a) washes
b) washing
c) washed
d) wash

8. They were ________ to the party when the music suddenly stopped.
a) dances
b) danced
c) dancing
d) dance

9. He was ________ to the radio while he was cooking dinner.
a) listens
b) listening
c) listened
d) listen

10. The cat ________ on the fence when I saw it.
a) sits
b) sitting
c) sat
d) sitted

11. While they were ________ a movie, I was reading a book.
a) watch
b) watched
c) watching
d) watches

12. We ________ the rain and decided to stay indoors.
a) hear
b) hearing
c) heard
d) heared

13. She ________ a beautiful song at the talent show last night.
a) sings
b) singing
c) sang
d) sung

14. While he was ________ the car, his sister was cleaning the windows.
a) washes
b) washing
c) washed
d) wash

15. They ________ a delicious cake for the party yesterday.
a) bake
b) baking
c) baked
d) bakes




The use of “shall”, “will”, and “may”

1. Shall:
– “Shall” is used to indicate a future action or to make suggestions or offers. It is often used in formal or British English.
– Examples:
– I shall visit my grandmother tomorrow.
– Shall we go to the park?
– Shall I help you with your homework?

2. Will:
– “Will” is used to express future actions or intentions, make predictions, or offer promises.
– Examples:
– She will join the dance class next month.
– The sun will rise in the morning.
– I promise I will help you with your project.

3. May:
– “May” is used to express permission, possibility, or uncertainty.
– Examples:
– May I go to the restroom, please?
– It may rain later today.
– She may be busy; let’s call and check.

It’s important to note that the use of “shall” and “may” is less common in modern spoken English, particularly in American English. Instead, “will” and “can” are often used in those contexts. However, it’s still essential to understand the usage of all three modal verbs.

Here are a few additional examples to illustrate the differences:

– Shall: Shall we have dinner together?
– Will: I will bring dessert for the party.
– May: May I borrow your pen?

– Shall: Shall I open the window?
– Will: I will call you later.
– May: It may snow tomorrow.

Remember, modals can have different meanings depending on the context of the sentence. They help us express various degrees of possibility, willingness, obligation, and more.

Encourage students to practice using these modals in everyday conversations to become familiar with their usage. As they encounter different situations, they will gain a better understanding of when to use “shall,” “will,” or “may” appropriately.


Read the sentences in the table several times and write out fourteen correct sentences from it:


The boy

Will Buy abook,

Go to lagos,

Pay the bill,

Wont he?
We Shall not Go with them,

Buy from them,

Tell the truth,

Shall we?
My father



Will Play football,

Watch the match,

Discuss the matter,

Wont he?

Complete the following sentences:

  1. We shall not assist them, _________?
  2. You will cut the grass, __________?
  3. Emmanuel will go to the farm, _______?
  4. My mother will not beat me, _____?
  5. We may go tomorrow, ________?
  6. She may not spend her money,_______?


1. _______ you be attending the party tomorrow?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Do

2. I _______ help you with your homework if you need assistance.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

3. _______ I borrow your pencil for a moment?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Can

4. She _______ go to the concert with her friends this weekend.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

5. _______ we start the game now?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Should

6. He _______ arrive late due to the traffic.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) must

7. _______ I bring you a glass of water?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Could

8. They _______ be studying for the exam right now.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

9. We _______ go to the beach if the weather is good.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

10. _______ I open the window? It’s getting warm in here.
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Should

11. She _______ become a doctor in the future.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

12. _______ you please pass me the salt?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Can

13. We _______ visit our grandparents next weekend.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can

14. _______ I have a piece of cake?
a) Shall
b) Will
c) May
d) Could

15. They _______ not be able to attend the meeting tomorrow.
a) shall
b) will
c) may
d) can




Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. They are pairs of words that convey contrasting ideas. Understanding antonyms is important as it helps us expand our vocabulary and express ourselves more precisely. Let’s look at some examples:

1. Hot – Cold:
– Hot and cold are antonyms. Hot refers to high temperature, while cold refers to low temperature. For example:
– The sun is hot today.
– The ice cream is cold.

2. Tall – Short:
– Tall and short are antonyms. Tall refers to a great height, while short refers to a lack of height. For example:
– He is tall and can reach the top shelf.
– She is short and needs a stool to reach the sink.

3. Happy – Sad:
– Happy and sad are antonyms. Happy refers to a feeling of joy or contentment, while sad refers to a feeling of sorrow or unhappiness. For example:
– I feel happy when I’m with my friends.
– She was sad because she lost her favorite toy.

4. Fast – Slow:
– Fast and slow are antonyms. Fast refers to a high speed, while slow refers to a low speed. For example:
– The cheetah is a fast animal.
– The snail moves slowly.

5. Big – Small:
– Big and small are antonyms. Big refers to a large size, while small refers to a diminutive size. For example:
– The elephant is big.
– The ladybug is small.

6. Day – Night:
– Day and night are antonyms. Day refers to the time when the sun is visible, while night refers to the time of darkness. For example:
– We play outside during the day.
– I sleep at night.

Antonyms can be found in various contexts and are an essential part of our everyday language. By learning antonyms, you can express yourself more precisely and understand the nuances of different words.


Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning

Look carefully at the underlined words:

Word antonyms

Happy sad

New old

Remember forget

Smaller bigger

Like dislike

Big small

Beautiful ugly

Like hate

Big small

Quiet noisy

Supply the opposite of these words

  1. Dead –
  2. Awake –
  3. Bright –
  4. Far –
  5. Fat –
  6. Dark – white –
  7. Wrong –
  8. Empty –
  9. Weak –
  10. Slow –
  11. Short –
  12. Coming –
  13. Smooth –
  14. Untidy –


1. The cat is _______ the table.
a) under
b) above
c) beside
d) behind

2. The car is _______.
a) fast
b) slow
c) big
d) new

3. The sun shines during the _______.
a) day
b) night
c) morning
d) evening

4. She is _______ with her test results.
a) happy
b) sad
c) tired
d) excited

5. The book is _______ on the shelf.
a) open
b) closed
c) old
d) heavy

6. The student _______ his hand to answer the question.
a) raises
b) lowers
c) waves
d) claps

7. The dog barks _______.
a) loudly
b) softly
c) quickly
d) slowly

8. Winter is _______.
a) hot
b) cold
c) rainy
d) sunny

9. The box is _______ to carry.
a) heavy
b) light
c) big
d) small

10. She is _______ to meet her friends.
a) eager
b) reluctant
c) excited
d) happy

11. The river flows _______.
a) uphill
b) downhill
c) fast
d) sideways

12. The baby is _______.
a) tall
b) short
c) big
d) small

13. The plane takes off and _______.
a) lands
b) sinks
c) rises
d) stops

14. The lion is _______ in the jungle.
a) fierce
b) gentle
c) brave
d) strong

15. The butterfly has _______ wings.
a) colorful
b) dull
c) beautiful
d) tiny




An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

Types of adverbs

  1. Adverbs of manner: they denotes how an action is being carried out. Examples are boldly, quickly, friendly, happily etc.
  2. Adverbs of time: adverbs of time tell us the time when an action takes place. Examples are- yesterday, tonight, tomorrow, weekend etc.
  3. Adverbs of degree: adverbs of degree answers the question “How?”: for example; the food is too hot.
  4. Adverbs of place
  5. The book is on the table.
  6. The girl is in the room.

This answers the question “Where?”


Adverbs are words that modify or describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They provide more information about how, when, where, or to what extent an action or state occurs. Let’s explore the different types of adverbs:

1. Adverbs of Manner:
– Adverbs of manner describe how an action is performed or how something happens. They often end in “-ly.” Examples:
– She sings beautifully.
– He drives carefully.
– The dog barks loudly.

2. Adverbs of Time:
– Adverbs of time indicate when an action takes place. They answer questions like “When?” Examples:
– We will go to the park tomorrow.
– They arrived early for the meeting.
– She always brushes her teeth before bed.

3. Adverbs of Place:
– Adverbs of place describe where an action takes place. They answer questions like “Where?” Examples:
– The bird flew high in the sky.
– They searched everywhere for their lost keys.
– The children played outside in the park.

4. Adverbs of Frequency:
– Adverbs of frequency describe how often an action occurs. They answer questions like “How often?” Examples:
– He usually walks to school.
– We sometimes go to the movies on weekends.
– They never eat fast food.

5. Adverbs of Degree:
– Adverbs of degree indicate the intensity or extent of an action or quality. They answer questions like “To what extent?” Examples:
– She is very intelligent.
– The weather is quite hot today.
– The movie was extremely exciting.

It’s important to note that some adverbs, such as “often,” “always,” “never,” and “sometimes,” can fit into multiple categories depending on their usage in a sentence.

Here’s an example sentence that includes different types of adverbs:
– He carefully walked to the park yesterday.

In this sentence, “carefully” is an adverb of manner, modifying the verb “walked.” “Yesterday” is an adverb of time, indicating when the action took place.

By using adverbs, we can provide more specific and detailed information in our sentences, making our communication clearer and more engaging.



Underline the adverbs in these sentences:

  1. Olu dressed neatly
  2. The girl smiles very beautifully
  3. Chioma walks quickly to school
  4. Amina reads well
  5. We go to school everyday
  6. The man died last week
  7. The boy can play here.
  8. The boy writes neatly.
  9. Eze is here


Fill-in-the-gap with the right adverb from the given alternatives

1. She sings _______.
a) beautiful
b) beautifully
c) beautifulness
d) beauty

2. They arrived _______ for the concert.
a) early
b) earlier
c) earliest
d) earliness

3. The dog barks _______.
a) loud
b) loudly
c) loudness
d) loudnesses

4. We will go to the park _______.
a) tomorrow
b) yesteryear
c) todays
d) yesterday

5. He walks to school _______.
a) careful
b) carefully
c) carefulness
d) care

6. The bird flew _______ in the sky.
a) high
b) higher
c) highest
d) highness

7. They searched _______ for their lost keys.
a) everywhere
b) everywheres
c) everywhen
d) everywhy

8. She _______ brushes her teeth before bed.
a) always
b) nevers
c) sometimely
d) everyday

9. The weather is _______ hot today.
a) quite
b) quitely
c) quiet
d) quitest

10. He _______ walks to the bus stop.
a) usually
b) unusual
c) usualness
d) unusuality

11. We _______ go to the movies on weekends.
a) sometimes
b) alltimes
c) no-time
d) no-times

12. She is _______ intelligent.
a) very
b) veryly
c) veriness
d) verily

13. The movie was _______ exciting.
a) extremely
b) extreme
c) extremity
d) extremeness

14. They _______ eat fast food.
a) never
b) neverly
c) nevers
d) neverness

15. The child _______ plays in the playground.
a) always
b) allways
c) alltime
d) alltime




Third Term Examinations Primary 4 English Grammar