# MATTER : MEANING AND STATES OF MATTER

Subject :

### Basic Science and Technology

Term :

Second Term

Week:

Week 8

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson :

The pupils have previous knowledge of  Domestic Animals that was taught as a topic during the last lesson

Topic :

MATTER: MEANING AND STATES OF MATTER

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

• state the meaning of matter
• define atom
• identify the states of matter
• analyse solids, gases and liquids in terms of how closely packed their particles are

Instructional Materials:

• Wall charts
• Pictures
• Related Online Video
• Flash Cards
• Examples of energy conversion (e.g. solar panel, hydroelectric dam, battery)
• Chart paper and markers
• Textbooks
• Workbooks

Methods of Teaching :

• Class Discussion
• Group Discussion
• Explanation
• Role Modelling
• Role Delegation

Reference Materials:

• Scheme of Work
• Online Information
• Textbooks
• Workbooks
• 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
• Workbooks

Content:

### What is matter?

Matter is anything that has weight and occupied space. It takes up space and has mass. It can be a solid, like a rock or a toy car. It can also be a liquid, like water or juice. And it can also be a gas, like air or helium in a balloon.

For example, a pencil is made of matter because it takes up space and has mass. It is a solid object. A glass of water is also made of matter because it takes up space and has mass. It is a liquid. And the air we breathe is made of matter because it takes up space and has mass. It is a gas.

Matter can also be described by its properties such as density, color, and state (solid, liquid or gas).

### States of matter

The states of matter are the different forms that matter can take. There are three main states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.

A solid is a state of matter where the particles are tightly packed together and do not move around much. An example of a solid is a pencil. It keeps its shape and is not easy to pour.

1. Solid:
• Pencil
• Ice cube
• Brick
• Apple
• Steel

A liquid is a state of matter where the particles are closer together than they are in a gas, but not as close as they are in a solid. An example of a liquid is water. It takes the shape of its container and is easy to pour.

1. Liquid:
• Water
• Juice
• Milk
• Oil
• Alcohol

A gas is a state of matter where the particles are far apart and move around freely. An example of a gas is the air we breathe. It does not have a fixed shape and is easy to compress.

1. Gas:
• Air
• Oxygen
• Helium
• Carbon dioxide
• Nitrogen

There’s also a fourth state of matter called plasma, which is a gas-like state of matter where the particles are not only far apart but also electrically charged. An example of plasma is lightning in a thunderstorm.

1. Plasma:
• Lightning
• Fire
• Solar wind
• Stars
• Plasma ball

### How closely packed are liquids, solids and gases

Solids, gases, and liquids are all made up of tiny particles called atoms or molecules. But the way these particles are packed together is different for each state of matter.

1. Solids have particles that are very closely packed together, this is why they keep their shape and are not easy to pour. Examples include a pencil, an ice cube, and a brick.
2. Liquids have particles that are closer together than they are in a gas, but not as close as they are in a solid. This is why they take the shape of their container and are easy to pour. Examples include water, juice, and milk.
3. Gases have particles that are far apart and move around freely. This is why they do not have a fixed shape and are easy to compress. Examples include air, helium in a balloon, and the oxygen we breathe.
4. In a solid, the particles are tightly packed and have a fixed shape and volume. For example, ice cube is a solid and does not change shape until it melts and becomes a liquid, then it can change its shape according to the container.
5. In a gas, the particles are far apart and move around freely. For example, air in a balloon, when the balloon is inflated, the air particles occupy more space, so the balloon expands.

Evaluation

1. What is the definition of matter? a) Anything that takes up space and has mass b) Anything that has a color c) Anything that makes noise d) Anything that can be seen
2. What are the three main states of matter? a) Solid, liquid, and gas b) Solid, liquid, and plasma c) Gas, liquid, and plasma d) Solid, gas, and plasma
3. What is an example of a solid state of matter? a) Air b) Water c) Pencil d) Juice
4. What is an example of a liquid state of matter? a) Brick b) Oxygen c) Water d) Steel
5. What is an example of a gas state of matter? a) Ice cube b) Air c) Juice d) Pencil
6. What is an example of a plasma state of matter? a) Fire b) Water c) Oxygen d) Pencil
7. What is the difference between a solid and a liquid? a) Solids have particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much, while liquids have particles that are closer together than they are in a gas. b) Liquids have particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much, while solids have particles that are far apart and move around freely. c) Solids have particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much, while gases have particles that are far apart and move around freely. d) Gases have particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much, while liquids have particles that are far apart and move around freely.
8. What is the difference between a gas and a plasma? a) Gases have particles that are far apart and move around freely, while plasma has particles that are far apart and also electrically charged. b) Plasma has particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much, while gases have particles that are far apart and move around freely. c) Gases have particles that are far apart and also electrically charged, while plasma has particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much. d) Plasma has particles that are far apart and move around freely, while gases have particles that are tightly packed together and do not move around much.
9. Can matter be both a solid and a liquid at the same time? a) Yes b) No
10. What is the property of matter that allows it to take the shape of its container? a) Density b) Color c) Viscosity d) Flexibility
11. How many states of matter are there? a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5
12. What is the name of the state of matter where the particles are tightly packed together and do not move around much? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
13. What is the name of the state of matter where the particles are closer together than they are in a gas, but not as close as they are in a solid? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
14. What is the name of the state of matter where the particles are far apart and move around freely? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
15. What is the fourth state of matter? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
16. Can matter change from one state to another? a) Yes b) No
17. What process do you need to change a solid into a liquid? a) Heating b) Cooling c) Pressing d) Mixing
18. What process do you need to change a liquid into a gas? a) Heating b) Cooling c) Pressing d) Mixing
19. What process do you need to change a gas into a liquid? a) Heating b) Cooling c) Pressing d) Mixing
20. Can a solid and a gas exist at the same temperature? a) Yes b) No
21. Which state of matter is a pencil an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
22. Which state of matter is water an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
23. Which state of matter is air an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
24. Which state of matter is fire an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
25. Which state of matter is a steel bar an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
26. Which state of matter is juice an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
27. Which state of matter is oxygen an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
28. Which state of matter is helium in a balloon an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
29. Which state of matter is lightning in a thunderstorm an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma
30. Which state of matter is a plasma ball an example of? a) Solid b) Liquid c) Gas d) Plasma

Lesson Plan: Matter: Meaning and States of Matter

Objective: Students will be able to define matter and explain the different states of matter.

Materials:

• Whiteboard and markers
• Interactive activities and worksheets related to states of matter
• Science textbook or online resources

Introduction (5 minutes):

• Write their responses on the whiteboard.
• Introduce the concept of matter as anything that takes up space and has mass.

Direct Instruction (15 minutes):

• Define and explain the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.
• Use examples to help students understand the characteristics of each state.
• Provide an interactive activity or worksheet to help students identify and classify different materials as a solid, liquid, or gas.

Practice (10 minutes):

• Have students work in small groups to identify and classify different materials as a solid, liquid, or gas.
• Walk around the room to assist students as needed.

Independent Practice (10 minutes):

• Provide students with a worksheet or online activity to practice identifying and classifying different materials as a solid, liquid, or gas.

Closure (5 minutes):

• Review the key concepts of matter and states of matter with the class.
• Ask students to share their thoughts and understanding of the topic.
• Assign homework related to states of matter.

Assessment:

• Formative: Observation of students during independent practice, interactive activities, and class discussions.
• Summative: Worksheet or online activity, homework assignments related to states of matter
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