The Functions of The Joints In The Human Skeletal System


The Functions of Joints and Muscles In the Human Body .


Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology

Term :

Second Term


Week 4

Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5

Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of  the human skeletal system  in their previous lesson

Topic :

The Functions of Joints and Muscles In the Human Body .




Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define joints
  • Define muscles
  • Give examples of joints
  • Give examples of joints
  • Mention the function of joints in the human body .
  • Mention the functions of muscles in the human body .

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks

Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :

What is a joint  ?

A joint is a place where two or more bones meet in human body .


Types of Joints in Human Body 

  1. The Hinge joints ( Moveable joints ) : These joints are located at the hip and elbow parts of the human body . They are also found in the fingers, knees and toes . Hinge joints allow movement not beyond one hundred and eighty degrees which means that such movement cannot extent to rotational movement or three hundred and sixty degree . The only movement that can be achieved with the use of hinge joints is the bending , folding and straightening movement .
  2. The Ball and Socket joints (Moveable joints ) : These types of joints are located at the shoulder regions and hips of humans .They enhance the connection of bones in the body by plugging in the femur and the acetabulum together which are the ball and the socket respectively. The ball and socket joints enable round movement of the body in a rotational way round the clock in three hundred and sixty degrees . That is why you can rotate your hand round.
  3. Suture Joints ( Immovable Joints ) : These types of joints are easily noticed on the human skulls as cracks but the are not cracks but joints in the skull. These joints are not moveable but they are fixed with ligament that hold them together . Another example of immovable joints are the pelvic girdle joints .


Functions Of The Joints in Human Body . 

  • Joints enable movement in human body .
  • The skeleton in human body are held and connected together by various joints .
  • The joints in human body also serve as protective shield for some delicate organs in the body eg the suture joints in the skull and the brain
  • They provide shapes for the human body .



What are muscles ?

Muscles are the fleshy parts of the body . They are mostly the components that make up most tissues and organs of the body . Muscles can react to voluntary or involuntary actions . Muscles continue to increase during growth . Muscles of the stomach of woman enlarge during pregnancy .

Types of Muscles In Human

  1. The Cardiac Muscles : These are the muscles of the heart . These muscles are involved in the  involuntary action of plumping blood all over the body. The heart is the pumping station of the body .  It pumps blood to all over the body .
  2. The Smooth Muscle :  These types of muscles are used to exert pressure or force to other organs of the body . Smooth muscles form organs in the body . Examples of such organs are the bladder and stomach
  3. The Skeletal Muscles :  Most of these skeletal muscles are attached to the skeleton in the human body . The skeletal muscles help human in movement, lifting of heavy objects , maintaining good posture , maintaining balance and in breathing


Function of Muscles in Human Body

Most human activities are made possible with the muscles working together the skeleton . That is one of the very good reasons that we must take very good care of our body . The body is aid to perform the following task with the aid of the muscles .

  1. Breathing
  2. Eating
  3. Chewing
  4. Writing
  5. Walking
  6. Standing
  7. Jumping
  8. Having babies
  9. Passing out urine or faces
  10.  Thinking
  11. Seeing
  12. Hearing
  13. Feeling
  14. Swimming
  15. Dancing etc.



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.


Evaluation . 

  1. What are joints
  2. What are muscles
  3. Write out two types of joints
  4. Mention two types of muscles
  5. list four functions of joints
  6. list four functions of muscles


Prepare for the next lesson by reading about Reproduction in plants



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