Soap Making


Soap making and active ingredients needed



Subject : 

Basic Science and Technology


Term :

Second Term



Week 10


Class :

Basic 5 / Primary 5


Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of acid and bases .They have also been taught the various qualities of acid and base 


Topic :

Soap Making

Materials that are needed for soap making


Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define soap
  • Mention the active ingredients that are needed for soap making
  • list uses of soap
  • mention materials that are needed for soap making



Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • Soap



Methods of Teaching :

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation



Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks



Content :

What is soap  ?

Soap is a fatty lathery ,foamy substance that is used in washing , bathing or cleaning . It is a cleansing agent that usually form foam with water. Soap can be made locally or industrially. Materials like coconut oil , caster oil or sunflower oil gives soap its foamy nature . Soap is a substance produced by the  chemical reaction of caustic potash or caustic soda with vegetable oil or animal fat. It is the process of making soap.



There are basically two type of soap. 

Soft soap or potassium soap: it is the mixture of caustic potash and oil. Examples of soft soap are liquid, toilet and some antiseptic soap.

Hard soap or sodium soap: it is the mixture of caustic soda and oil results in hard soap. An example of hard soap is bar soap we use in washing our clothes.

Other substances like perfumes, color and preservatives can be added to soap.





Active ingredients are the chemical used in soap making.

They are classified into two (2).

Acids: examples are acetic acid and sometimes sulphuric acids.

Bases: soluble base (Alkalis) e.g. caustic soda, caustic potash etc.

Materials needed for soap: stove (any source of heat), frying pan, clean container, open pot, stirrer.




The following are steps for producing soda soap.

Heating Palm oil in a frying pan until it changes color.

Remove the fried oil from the stove or burner.

Measure small amount of caustic soda into it.

Heat the mixture of caustic soda and palm oil.

Mix the mixture thoroughly using stirrer until the mixture is thicken.

Stop heating the mixture and pour the mixture into empty milk tin.

Allow the content in the milk tin to cool and become harden.

Allow the mixture to cool and set

Remove the soap from the tin and carry out the following test.

Your soap is formed.





Take the husk (skin) of unripe plantain and dry it completely for some days.

Burn the dry husk until it turns into ashes.

Put the ashes in a frying pan and add a measure amount of palm oil

Boil the content

Stir the content (fried oil and ashes) continuously with a wooden stick.

A semi- solid black soap called native soap is formed.





Soap is used for bathing

Used when moping and scrubbing of the floor.

For washing clothes, plates and other plastics materials.

Used to remove grease from machine parts in our industries.

Used as cleaning agent in industries to clean can, bottles.





The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise




The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.



Evaluation . 

  • Define soap
  • Name three local materials used in making soap.

    Mention the active ingredients in the local materials used in making soap.

  • Explain how to make soap from local materials.
  • State three uses of soap.
  • What gives soap its foamy lathery nature



Prepare for the next lesson by reading about Revision



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