Speech Work: Consonant Sounds /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /θ/,/ð/ Comprehension/Summary: More about Identifying the Topic Sentence in a Passage Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Religion (Christianity) Structure: Introduction to Irregular Verbs Writing Skills: Record Keeping (Introduction).
Subject : English Grammar
Class : SS 1
TERM : FIRST TERM
WEEK : WEEK 8
Speech Work: Consonant Sounds /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /θ/,/ð/
Comprehension/Summary: More about Identifying the Topic Sentence in a Passage
Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Religion (Christianity)
Structure: Introduction to Irregular Verbs
Writing Skills: Record Keeping (Introduction).
ASPECT: Speech Work
TOPIC: Consonants /ʃ/,/ʒ/,//θ/,/ð/ /
/ʃ/ – This consonant, a voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, has many spelling symbols.
‘sh’ – shop, sharp, push, dish.
‘s’ – sugar, sure, pretension.
‘sc’ – conscience.
‘c’ – ocean, special, official.
‘ch’ – machine, moustache, champagne, chagrin.
‘ti’ – patience, mention, question.
‘ss’ – mission, passion, pressure.
The sound can occur at the initial, medial and final positions as shown below:
/ʒ/ – This consonant, a voiced palato-alveolar fricative sound, occurs at the medial position. It has the following spelling symbols:
‘s’ – usual, leisure, measure, treasure, casual.
‘z’ – seizure.
‘si’ – vision, cohesion, erosion, evasion, decision.
‘ge’ – prestige, beige, genre, rouge, camouflage.
It is important to note that /ʒ/ does not usually occur at the beginning or end of a word except in a few words of French origin. Examples of such words are given below:
All these are English words but are borrowed from French.
The following words are where /ʒ/ occurs at the medial position:
usual, measure, seizure, cohesion, erosion, vision, leisure, evasion, decision, confusion.
The following words show the contrast between /ʃ/ and /ʒ/:
/θ/ – This consonant, a voiceless dental fricative, has ‘th’ as the only spelling symbol. It occurs at the initial, medial and final positions in words as shown below:
Note that ‘th’ is silent in asthma and isthmus.
/ð/ – This consonant, a voiced dental fricative sound, has only ‘th’ as spelling symbol, e.g. than, that, this, those, thee, bathe, writhe, loathe, soothe, clothe.
It occurs at the initial, medial and final positions in words as shown below:
The following words show the contrast between /θ/ and /ð/:
Questions on Consonants /ʃ/,/ʒ/,//θ/,/ð/ /tʃ/,/dʒ/
1. How do you spell the “sh” sound?
2. How do you spell the “zh” sound?
3. How do you spell the “th” sound?
4. How do you spell the “dh” sound?
5. How do you spell the “ch” sound?
6. How do you spell the “j” sound?
7. What is the difference between the “sh” and “zh” sounds?
8. What is the difference between the “th” and “dh” sounds?
9. What is the difference between the “ch” and “j” sounds?
10. Why are the consonants /ʃ/,/ʒ/,//θ/,/ð/ called “sibilants”?
Sibilants are a class of consonants that hiss or whiz when pronounced, like the sounds “sh,” “zh,” “th,” and “dh.” The word “sibilant” comes from the Latin word sibilare, meaning “to hiss.” These sounds are produced by forcing air through a narrow channel in the mouth, which creates turbulence and a distinctive hissing noise. Sibilants are found in many languages, but they are particularly common in English. There are two main types of sibilants: fricative and affricate.
Fricative sibilants are made by constricting the airflow in the mouth so that it escapes through a small opening at the side of the tongue. The “sh” sound is a classic example of a fricative sibilant. To make this sound, the tongue is positioned behind the top front teeth and the airflow is constricted by pressing the sides of the tongue against the teeth. The “zh” sound, as in the word “pleasure,” is another common fricative sibilant. This sound is made in a similar way to “sh,” but with the tip of the tongue curled back slightly further.
Affricate sibilants start off as a stop, with the tongue blocking the airflow completely, and then release into a fricative. The “ch” sound in the word “church” is an example of an affricate sibilant. To make this sound, the tongue is positioned behind the upper teeth.
TOPIC: Summarizing in specified number of sentences
Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Pages 53-54
Class Activities: Students are instructed to read the short passage and answer the question on it. The educator leads them to answer the summary question correctly.
EVALUATION: Find the meaning of the following words and use each of them in sentences: cathedral, vestry, sacred, desecrate, clergy and sanctify.
ASSIGNMENT: NOSEC. SSBK1 (Exercise 2, page 39.)
ASPECT: Vocabulary Development
TOPIC: Words associated with Religion (Christianity) (NOSEC. Pg.82)
Words associated with Religion (Christianity) (NOSEC. Pg.82)
Theology– the study of the nature of God and religious beliefs
Doctrine– a set of principles or beliefs, especially ones relating to a particular area of activity
Dogma– a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true
Creed– a statement of the essential beliefs of a Christian church, especially one in the form of an affirmation of faith
Prayer– a solemn request or wish addressed to God or an object of worship
Worship– reverent honor and homage paid to God or a sacred person or thing
Divine– relating to or belonging to God or a god
Sacred– connected with religion in a way that demands respect or veneration; holy
Providence– the protective care of God or of nature as a spiritual power
Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs.
Christians are people who have faith in Jesus Christ as their personal savior. In order to be a Christian, one must believe in three things
-that Jesus was born of a virgin
-that he is the son of God
-that he rose from the dead.
The main Christian denominations are Catholicism, Protestantism, and Orthodoxy. There are many different sects within Christianity, such as Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Episcopal.
Interactive Questions and Answers
1. What is the significance of Easter?
2. What is the significance of Good Friday?
3. Why do Christians believe in the Trinity?
4. How did Christianity spread throughout the world?
5. Who was Jesus Christ and what did he teach?
6. What are the different types of Christian denominations?
7. What is the difference between Catholicism and Protestantism?
8. What is the difference between Orthodoxy and other Christian denominations?
9. What are the beliefs of Christians regarding salvation?
10. What is the role of the Church in Christianity?
1. Easter is significant to Christians because it celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.
2. Good Friday is significant to Christians because it commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus Christ
3. Christians believe in the Trinity, which is the doctrine that states that there is one God in three persons, namely, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
4. Christianity spread throughout the world through the missionaries who went to different countries to preach the gospel
5. Jesus Christ was a Jewish man who was born in Palestine. He taught that there is only one God and that people should love one another
6. The different types of Christian denominations include, but are not limited to, Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Episcopal
7. The difference between Catholicism and Protestantism is that Protestants do not believe in the authority of the Pope
8. The difference between Orthodoxy and other Christian denominations is that Orthodox Christians have a different understanding of the nature of Christ
9. Christians believe that salvation is a free gift from God that cannot be earned
10. The role of the Church in Christianity is to provide a community for believers and to spread the gospel to non-believers.
Reference Book: Banjo et al (2014) New Oxford Senior English Course for Secondary Schools Book 1 Ibadan: University Press PLC. Page 81-82
Class Activities: Students are to fill the missing gaps in the passage with the right words from the options.
- Define the word, ‘Christianity’
- Say the meaning of the underlined words in the above passage.
- Find the meaning of the following words and use each of them in sentences: monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, kinship, bigamy and polygyny
- Monogamy is the practice of being married to only one person at a time
- Polygamy is the practice of having more than one wife or husband at the same time
- Polyandry is the rarest form of polygamy and it’s when a woman has more than one husband at the same time.
- Kinship is the relationship that exists between people who are related to each other
- Bigamy is the crime of being married to more than one person at a time
- Polygyny is the practice of having more than one wife at the same time. It is the most common form of polygamy.
TOPIC: Introduction to Irregular Verbs
Verbs can be regular or irregular. A regular verb always takes –ed inflection in both their simple past and –ed participle forms.
Irregular verbs do not obey the rules which apply to regular verbs. They deviate from the pattern of adding -ed or -d to the infinitive form to form the past tense and past participle forms.
Categories of Irregular Verbs
- Those that have the same form as the infinitive form in the past tense and past participle forms. Examples: bet, cut, put, burst,
- Another category includes those irregular verbs which have two past tenses and two past participles, the past tenses having the same forms as the past participles. Examples: spoil, learn, dwell,
- There are some irregular verbs which have past tenses that never end in -ed and which have the same form as that of the past participles. Examples: bend, build, dig, feel, etc.
- Another category includes irregular verbs which have regular past tense forms ending in -ed or -d and two possible past participles, one of which is regular and the same as the past tense. Examples: mow, prove, sew,
- Some irregular verbs have past tenses and past participles which are different from each other and different from the infinitive. Examples: bear, begin, bite,
Examples of irregular verbs are given in the table below:
|Base Form||Past Tense||Past Participle|
- He has drunk liquor.
- The iron has melted.
- The clock has struck five.
- The ship has sunk.
- The iron has melted.
ASPECT: Writing Skill
TOPIC: Introduction to Record Keeping
A record is simply a written account, or an electronically captured account of a happening or an event that is preserved for future reference.
Types of Records
Records are documents that can be kept in three ways. The type or form a record takes depends on a number of factors such as time, size and purpose of keeping it. The three types are:
- Graphic Records: These are records kept in written or printed form. Examples include most historical documents, constitutions, legal documents, medical records, photographs and official documents such as minutes and reports.
- Audio Records: These are electronically captured speeches. By this means, we can still listen to great personalities like Chief Obafemi Awolowo, Dr Nnamdi Azikwe and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa who died many years ago.
- Audio-visual Records: These records keep both the speeches and actions of the event recorded. Usually, journalists with television stations keep such records. Weddings, naming ceremonies, burials, convocations, swearing-in-ceremonies, etc.are nowadays kept as audio-visual records.
Importance of Records and Record Keeping
Records are very important documents. Below are some reasons why we need to keep records:
- We obtain information about the past events from such records.
- They guide us in understanding the present
- They provide useful evidence in the settling of disputes.
- They enable us to plan for the future.
- They give us helpful hints about how to prevent or manage crises.
Personal and Official Records
Records can be further divided into personal and official records. Personal records consist of documents such as a person’s birth certificate, a personal diary an autobiography, a marriage certificate, receipts of purchases, counterfoils of financial transactions, an international passport, utility bills, letters of admission, employment and promotion, as well as academic and professional certificates.
Official records are documents belonging to the government, organisations or societies. They are corporate documents. They include certificates of registration, registers, scheme of work, minutes, reports, log books, school diary, bulletin, gazette, etc.
Language of Records
Records are to be written in a simple, easy-to-understand language. Their choice of words, clarity of expression and style must be precise and consistent. Records are to be as accurate as possible, without adding to or subtracting from the event recorded. If a record contains a false account or exaggerated claims, it s not a reliable record.
- How were records kept before the invention of writing and electronic gadgets? Mention two of them.
- Which of the three modern ways of documenting events do you consider to be the best, and why?
- Write a record of important events that took place in your school last week.
- How were records kept before the invention of writing and electronic gadgets? Mention two of them.
People kept records before the invention of writing and electronic gadgets by using oral communication and cave paintings.
2. Which of the three modern ways of documenting events do you consider to be the best, and why?
I think the best way to document events is through writing because it is a more efficient and concise way of communicating. It also allows for a permanent record to be kept. Electronic gadgets are also a good way to document events, but they can be more prone to error and malfunction.
3. Write a record of important events that took place in your school last week.
On Monday, we had a special assembly to honor Veterans Day. On Tuesday, the school held its annual Thanksgiving feast. Wednesday was an early dismissal day. Thursday and Friday were regular days of instruction.