Western Musical Instruments: Musical Instruments for the orchestral- Strings, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion. Western instrument not used in the orchestra- Keyboard instrument, Stings.




First Term


Week 7


Basic 9 / JSS 3

Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

History of music of some western composers and their works:(1) Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). (2) Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827). (3) Felix Mendelson (1809-1847). (4) Robert Schumann (1810-1856). (5) Franz Liszt (1811-1886).


History of music some western composers and their works:(1)Joseph Haydn (1732-1809).(2)Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827). (3)Felix Mendelson (1809-1847).(4)Robert Schumann (1810-1856). (5)Franz Liszt (1811-1886).

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:


  • List of Western Musical Instruments:
  • Write out the importance of Musical Instruments for the orchestral-
  • Explain the functions of Strings, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion.
  • mention Western instrument not used in the orchestra- Keyboard instrument, Stings.


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks



Highlight Western Musical Instruments: Musical Instruments for the orchestral- Strings, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion. Western instrument not used in the orchestra- Keyboard instrument, Stings.

The piano, organ, and harpsichord are keyboard instruments. The strings category includes the violin family instruments (violin, viola, cello, and double bass) as well as the guitar family instruments (guitar, banjo, mandolin, etc.). These two families of instruments are not used in orchestral music. The brass category includes the trumpet, trombone, French horn, and tuba. The percussion category includes the xylophone, timpani, snare drum, and cymbals.

List the importance of Western Musical Instruments: Musical Instruments for the orchestral- Strings, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion. Western instrument not used in the orchestra- Keyboard instrument, Stings.

1. Western musical instruments are used in orchestral music to provide a wide range of sounds and textures.

2. The different families of instruments (strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion) each have their own unique capabilities and contribute to the overall sound of the orchestra.

3. These instruments are important for creating the balance and blend that is characteristic of orchestral music.

4. The different families of instruments also provide contrast and interest within the music, making it more enjoyable to listen to.

5. Western musical instruments are also used in solo and chamber music, providing a wide range of sounds for these smaller ensembles.



WESTERN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: Musical Instruments of the Orchestra – Strings, Woodwind, Brass, Percussion. (ii) Western Musical Instruments not used in the Orchestra- Keyboard Instruments, Strings




Western musical instruments are musical instruments that are produced Overseas and imported into our country. They are classified into two types: Orchestra and non- orchestra instruments.
Broad Classification of Western Instruments
1. Orchestral Instruments: These are the musical instruments that are used in the orchestra. They are of various groups and classified into four big families. They are Strings, Woodwind, Brass and Percussion.
2. Non- orchestra instruments: These are the musical instruments that are not used in the orchestra. These instruments also are useful in other areas of musical performance. They are: Keyboard instruments and strings.
Types of Orchestra Instruments
1. The String Family
This family produces sounds by the vibration of the strings. Different notes are produced by placing finger on different points of the string.String instruments are played by bowing or plucking. It forms the backbone of the orchestra. There are five different instruments in the string family; they are:

1. Violin

2. Viola

3. Cello

4. Double bass

5. Harp

2. The Woodwind Family
Woodwind instruments produce sounds when air is blown into the tubes through the mouthpiece. These instruments were formerly largely made of wood, ebonite and a few of them made of metal. Some of the instruments are: piccolo, flute, oboe, Corang Làis, clarinet, bassoon, double bassoon, saxophone bagpipe and the recorder family.

3. The Brass Family
Brass instruments are made of brass. They are played by blowing. They are always used in the military bands and for procession because their sound is heard well in the open air. All brass instruments have a mouthpiece through which the player blows. The brass instruments comprise trumpet, trombone, cornet, tuba French horn, euphonium and flugel horn.

4. The Percussion Family
Percussion instruments are the instruments that are struck, shaken, scraped or beaten to produce sounds. They constitute the largest in the orchestra. This family has varieties: Definite Pitch- Percussion and Indefinite Pitch- Percussion.
a. Definite Pitch- Percussion: They are varieties of percussion instruments that can be tuned. For example, timpani or kettle drum can be tuned by turning large screws attached to the side. Usually there are two kettledrums with one tuned to doh and the other to soh. Other examples are: Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Bells, Celesta and Marimba.


b. Indefinite Pitch- Percussion: These varieties cannot be tuned. They are; Side Drum (Snare Drum), Bass Drum, Triangle, Tambourine, Gong, Rattle and Castanets.
Non- orchestra Instruments Classification and Examples
1. Keyboard Instruments: They comprise piano, organ, accordion, melodion, spinet, harpsichord, clavichord and virginal.
2. Strings: They are of two types, guitar and harp.
3. Mention four major classifications of foreign musical instruments.
4. List string family instruments.



(D.C) Da Capo From the beginning

(D.S) Dal Segno Repeat from the point where the sign is.

Dolce Sweetly, gently

Fine The End.

Forza Force

Furioso Furiously

Grave solemn, serious

Largo Broad, slow

Legato Smoothly, connected

Lento Slowly

Liberamente Freely

Marcato Marked, stressed

Moderato Moderate

Piano Quiet, soft

Poco a poco Gradually

Presto Quick, fast

Rallentando Gradually slowing

Ritardando Gradually delaying

Rubato Freely, with feeling

Sforzando With force, sudden stress on a note

Subito Suddenly, immediately

Tempo Time, rate of speed in music. Also used as a command to return to the original

1. Write five woodwind instruments.
2. List four examples of brass instruments.
3. What are the two categories of non-orchestra instruments. Write two examples of each.




Piano – a musical instrument played by pressing keys on a keyboard, typically with the fingers

Instrumental – relating to or denoting music created without words or singing

Melody – a sequence of notes that make up a tune

Harmony – the combination of different notes played together to create a pleasing sound



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the need arise




1. What is the meaning of the word “music”?

2. Where does the word “music” come from?

3. What is the meaning of the word “musical”?

4. Where does the word “musical” come from?

5. What is the meaning of the word “melody

6. What are the most popular Western musical instruments?

7. What are the differences between these instruments?

8. How do they produce sound?

9. What are their ranges?

10. What are some of the techniques used to play them?


The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she makes the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.



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