Key signature with sharps and flats: Major keys with sharps , major keys with flats.




First Term


Week 3


Basic 9 / JSS 3

Previous lesson: 

The pupils have previous knowledge of

Time signature : Simple Compound , The uses of figures, simple and compound time.


Key signature with sharps and flats: Major keys with sharps, major keys with flats.

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of lesson, pupils should be able to:

  • Define key signature
  • List types of key signatures
  • Say the functions of key signature
  • Explain the uses of both simple and compound time signature


Instructional Materials:

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching:

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials:

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks





CONTENT: Definition, Types, functions of Key Signature.

Key Signature is a symbol which is usually written at the commencement (beginning) of the stave after the clef which indicates the key of any given music. Every piece of music is like a door locked with a padlock, which requires the right key to open it. A piece of music cannot be organized or agreeable to the ears if the correct key is not used to sing or play it .
Two types of symbols are used to identify musical keys namely Sharp and Flat.


(Key C major has no key signature because all rhe notes are natural, it uses only the white keys on the piano key board. It does not require any sharp or flat complete its scale.
There are seven major keys with sharps, namely G,D,A,E,F sharp ,C sharp.
Key G major ………… sharp at F.
Key D major……………two sharps at F,C.
Key A major …………….three sharps at F,C,G.
Key E major……………….four sharps at F,C,G,D.
Key B major…………………. five sharps at F,C,G,D,A.
Key F Sharp major …………… six sharps at F,C,G,D,A,E.
Key C Sharp major………………seven sharps at F,C,G,D,A,E,B.
NOTE: The order of the major keys: G,D,A,E,B ,F sharp, C sharp.


The order of the sharps on the staff: F,C,G,D,A,E,B.


TABLE OF MAJOR KEYS WITH SHARPS.( see page 9 of the music text book. Fundamentals of music book 3).


There are also seven major keys with flats namely F, B flat, C ,A D G C.
Key F major has just one flat at B.
Key B Flat major……………….two flats at B,E.
Key E Flat major………………..three flats at B,E,A.
Key A Flat major…………………four flats at B,E,A,D.
Key D Flat major …………………..five flats at B,E,A,D,G.
Key G Flat major ………………………six flats at B,E,A,D,G,C.
Key C Flat major ……………………….seven flats at B,E,A,D,G,C,F.

NOTE: The order of the flats on the stave is B,E,A,D,G,C,F.

Every key signature of the flat keys begins with B.

TABLE OF MAJOR KEYS WITH FLATS (See page 10 of Fundamentals of music book 3).

Calando/Morendo Becoming softer and slower

Macando/Smorzando/perdendosi Dying away

PPP Pianississimo As soft as possible

FFF Fortississimo As loud as possible

Adagio slow, leisurely

Andante Moderately slow (at a walking pace)

Tempo Speed

Tempo comodo Convenient speed.


When a key signature has sharps, they are always found in this order: F,C,G,D,A,E,B. When a key signature has flats, they are always found in this order: B,E,A,D,G,C,F.

The order of the sharps and flats on the staff can be remembered with the mnemonic ” Fat Cats Go Down Alleys Eating Birds.”


1. What is a key signature?

2. What is the order of the sharps on the staff?

3. What is the order of the flats on the staff?

4. What is the mnemonic for remembering the order of sharps and flats on the staff?

5. How many sharps or flats are in a key signature?



The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the need arise




1. What is Time signature?
2. Write the symbols used for time signature.
3. What key is three sharps?
4. Write the following major keys on the treble stave, D major, A major, B major and F major.
5. Write the order of sharps and flats on the staff.





The class teacher wraps up or concludes the lesson by giving out a short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where the needs arise.






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