TOPIC:  Fruits/vegetables

CONTENT:  (i Types of fruits

  • Nutritive value of fruit
  • Differentiate between fruits and vegetables
  • Factors affecting the choice of fruits and vegetables
  • Preparation and serving of fruits

SUBTOPIC 1: Types of fruits, Nutritive value of fruit

                    Definition of fruit

A fruit is a natural ovary of a flower, including the seed and any other part of the flower remaining attached to it.

Fruit is naturally sweet, colourful, high in vitamins and fibre and low in calories and fat. Vitamin C and photochemical, including antioxidant, abound in fruits.

Antioxidants destroy harmful substances in the body called free radicals which can build up and cause cancer. Many domesticated indigenous fruits are essential part of household diet.


Types of fruits

Common types of fruits in our locality: guava, mango, palm tree fruit, African pear, lemon, lime, pawpaw, cashew,

coconut, sweet orange, grape fruit, mandarins’ orange tangerine, sour sop, avocado pear, banana, pie apple, water,

melon, apples

Fruits can be classified majorly into two groups:

  • Fresh fruits
  1. Soft fruits e.g. berry, cashew, banana and sour sop etc.
  2. Hard fruits e.g. apples, pears, plum, water melon etc.
  • Citrus fruits e.g. oranges, lemons, grape fruits, tangerines etc.
  • Dried fruits such as figs, dates and apricot

Fruits can be further classified based on their physical characteristics

  1. Pomes: they have a seed surrounded by a firm flashy body e.g. apples and pears.
  2. Drupes: these have stones or nuts embedded in edible flesh e.g. cherries, plums, peaches, mangoes, avocadoes and olives.
  • Berries: they have seeds enclosed in a pup e.g. citrus, grapes and oranges.

         Nutritive Value of Fruits

Fruit is refreshing to eat and adds colour and flavour to the diet. Fruits are consumed raw

Contents of fruits:

  • Vitamin C ascorbic acid, B groups and small quantity of carotene (Vitamin A).
  • Carbohydrate in the form of sugar, cellulose and starch. The cellulose is indigestible but adds bulk to the stool.
  • Protein is small
  • Fat e.g. avocado and olive have high fat content
  • The water content of fruit is high, it ranges between 80% to 90%
  • Fruits contain some anti-nutrients like oxalic.

SUBTOPIC 2: Importance of fruit include

  1. Reduction of heart diseases, type II diabetes and some cancers.
  2. Help to maintain healthy blood pressure and perhaps reduce the risk of developing kidney stones.
  • Help to reduce loss of bone density with age due to potassium content
  1. Fruit fibre may reduce risks of disease, blood cholesterol levels, constipation and diversification in overall healthful eating pattern
  2. Vitamin C: fruits promotes growth, repair body tissue, head cuts, wounds and keep teeth gums healthy
  3. Reduce calories in meals and snacks.

          Factors to consider when choosing fruits

  1. Fruits in season: fruits are at the best when they are in season. Some are common in during the dry season e.g. bananas, pawpaw, citrus while guava and mangoes are common during the rainy season. They are cheaper and better in quality.
  2. They must be fresh
  • They must b free from insect infestation
  1. They must not be overripe
  2. They must be firm to touch
  3. Choose highest grade of grape for eating and lower grade for fruit salads and cooking.
  • For jellies, and jam, buy fruits with high protein content, gives better taste.




   SUBTOPIC 3: Preparation and serving of fruits (practical)

Fruits can be prepared in many ways before being served for consumption.

  1. Wash fruit properly to remove dust soil and other microorganism.
  2. Boil – fruits can be cooked to make most of them palatable e.g. apple
  3. Stew – fruits could be stewed to retain the shape of the fruit and to make them into other products such as jams and jellies.

This is done in water or in syrup. Those cooked in syrup help majorly in maintaining the shape particularly if the sugar concentration of the fruit is equal to that of the syrup. If the sugar concentration of the syrup is greater or more than that of the fruit, the fruit shrinks. Fruits may be served whole, fresh, ripe or raw. Fruit are importantly served as fruit salads when fruits are combined for delicious taste. It should be eaten before or after meals, and not with meals.


Recipe for fruits                                                               

A         Fruit Salad

Fresh fruit: pawpaw, pineapple, apple, mango. Water melon, orange, syrup (lemon, sugar and water)

  1. Make syrup by dissolving the sugar in water in a small pan.
  2. When the sugar is completely dissolved, bring the syrup to boil for about 1 minute the pour into a large bowl to cool.
  • Squeeze the juice from the lemon and add to the syrup.
  1. Wash the fruits, peel and cut (removing the peel and core as applicable).
  2. Add these to the cooled syrup
  3. Serve the fruit when completely cold with custard or as a dessert.
  4. Fruit fool

Recipe (ingredients with measurement)

  1. 500g mangoes
  2. 75g sugar
  3. 250 milk
  4. 1 level tablespoon custard powder
  5. 1 level table spoon sugar

Method (preparation)

  1. Wash, peel and cut mangoes and put into a small pan with water.
  2. Simmer greatly with the lid until the fruit is soft. Remove from heat and stir in 75g sugar.
  3. Make the custard, put most of the milk into a pan, leaving about 4 tablespoonfuls in a jug or basin.
  4. Add the custard powder and sugar to the milk in a jug and mix until it is free from lumps. Bring the milk in the pan to boil, and then pour it into the jug, stirring all the time. Make sure the custard is thick.
  5. Put the custard and fruit into the blender, blend until smooth, and then pour into glass dishes.
  6. Serve cold with grated chocolate on top to garnish.



  1. Collect all the fruits in season in your locality and group them into soft, hard and soft citrus fruits.
  2. State four( 4) nutrients in fruits
  3. List five (5) importance of fruits to human
  4. Explain five(5) factors to consider when choosing fruits
  5. Define fruit
  6. List at least fifteen(15) fruits obtained from your locality
  7. State two (2) classes of fruits
  8. Explain the following (a) pomes (b) drupes (c) berries
  9. Explain reasons for choosing fruits in season
  10. Use any fruits of your choice and formulate a recipe that has never existed.
  11. List five(5)  hard fruits from your locality
  12. Prepare and serve a suitable dessert using fruits of your choice


Objective Test

  1. Which of these should be used in making dishes? (a) citrus fruits (b) ripe fruits (c) unripe fruits (d) overripe fruits
  2. When should fruits be eaten? (a) before meal (b) after meal (c) with meal (d) before or after meal
  3. Which of these nutrients is fund in abundance in fruits? (a) carbohydrate (b) riboflavin (c) ascorbic acid (d) proteins
  4. An example of soft fruit is ________. (a) apple (b) lemon (c) berry (d)date
  5. All these are hard fruits except __________. (a) pears (b) plums (c) water melon (d) guava

Weekend Assignment

Read Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school book 2 by F.A. Bakare et al page (23 – 33)

Pre-reading Assignment

– Read types of vegetables, nutritive value and factors affecting choice of vegetables.

Weekend Activity

  • Identify the different vegetables.
  • State the factors affecting the choice of vegetable

Reference Text

Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school book 2 by F. A. Bakare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.



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