SUBJECT: FOOD AND NUTRITION
TOPIC: Main foods
CONTENT: iv Uses and choice of cereal grains, v. Cooking methods and vi. High/low extraction rate flour: usefulness of low extraction flour
SUBTOPIC 1: Uses and choice of cereal grains
Uses of cereals
Cereal grains are useful in multiple ways for food. For instance, cereals like millet are ground to make flour or meal, from which unleaven bread may be prepared. The grain maybe used to make porridge (kunu) and local beer (burukutu).
Sorghum corn can be used in preparing other dishes. They can be made to pap (akamu or ogi). Maize can be boiled or roasted and eaten whole. Rice can be used as rice pudding, boiled and eaten with stew, jollof rice or combined with beans, it can be ground into powder for various uses in food preparation.
Choice of Cereal Grains
Cereal grains can be chosen based on the following:
- Their freshness
- Free from weevils
SUBTOPIC 2: Cooking methods of cereal grains
The suitable method of cooking cereal grains are boiling, stewing, roasting and baking. Meals from cereals e.g. akamu or pap and tuwo
Recipe for akamu or pap for 2 people
½ cp of raw paste of cereal
2 ½ cups of water
Sugar to taste
¼ of a tin milk
- Bring the water to boiling point.
- Mix the paste with a little water to light consistency
- Pour the boiling water into the mixture; stir continuously until it thickens.
- Add sugar and milk to taste.
- Serve with fried yam/potatoes or akara (beans cake).
Recipe for ‘tuwo’ for 2 people
3 cups of ground cereal powder
3 cups of water
- Bring the water to boiling point
- Mix part of the powder in water and pour into boiling water and continue to stir
- Allow to cook for sometimes and then add more powder into the mixture to thicken.
- Stir and allow it to simmer for at least 10minutes and serve hot with any soup.
SUBTOPIC 3: High/low extraction rate flour: usefulness of low extraction flour
The proportion of the whole grain that is utilized to make flour is known as the extraction rate.
High extraction rate flours: These are produced from partially milled cereal that still retains some of outer layers. They are not as white as the low extraction rate flour, but are better in nutritive value. The flours obtained from cereals grain can be mixed with other ingredients and used in baking as in bread, cake, biscuit etc.
Low extraction rate: They are produced from cereals in which all the layers have been removed, they are very white and low in nutrient content.
Advantages of low extraction rate flour compared to high extraction rate flour.
- They are white
- They contain less fat
- They contain less phytic acid.
- They have better uniform baking quality
- They contain less fibre.
- They contain less of B-complex vitamin.
- They contain less calcium and iron.
- They contain less protein.
- They contain several trace elements.
Kitchen safety and Hygiene
SECOND TERM NOTES JS 3 (BASIC 9) COMPUTER SCIENCE
- List three suitable methods of cooking cereal grains and describe how one of them is used.
- What is low extraction rate flour?
- What are the advantages of low extraction flour over high extraction flour?
- Explain the term extraction rate in cereal grains processing
- Differentiate between low extraction and high extraction cereal grain processing.
- What are the disadvantages of high extraction flour?
- Cereal grains are useful in multiple ways for food. List 3 grains and the meals prepared from each.
- List the three (3) basic reasons in which cereal grains can be chosen.
- The proportion of the whole grain that is utilized to make flour is called…………….. (a) high extraction rate flour (b) extraction rate (c) serial grain extraction rate flour (d) low extraction rate flour
- Low extraction rate flour is produced from the flour that has been (a) blended (b) unrefined (c) washed (d) refined
- High extraction rate flour is produced from the flour that has been……….. (a) washed (b) refined (c) unrefined (d) blended
Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school book 2 by F. A. Bakare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.
Basic food and nutrition for senior secondary school SS 1-3 by Aminu S.N. Bariki (page 92 – 93)