Subject: Food and nutrition
Topic: Basic food nutrients.
(a) Foods in the locality
(b) Various food nutrients-carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils (lipids), Vitamins, minerals and water.
Sub-Topic 1: Food in the locality.
The foods we eat provide nourishing elements known as nutrients. They are the chemical substances present in food. Each of the food nutrients contribute immensely to our health. It is therefore necessary that we know their types, functions, sources and any negative effects they have on human body.
Food is any substances, solid or liquid, which when taken provides the body with materials for growth and repair; heat and energy; as well as regulation of body functions to bring about good health.
Food is very important in the day-to –day life of man.
It is the hub of good health and since health is wealth which everyone desires, it is only apparent that health is adequately maintained.
Types of foods and their locations
Different foods can grow better in certain climatic soil in different environment. For example, cereals like rice, sorghum etc, grow best in the savannah and middle belt. Cereals also grow in dry areas where irrigation is possible.
The condition that favours the growth of tubers. E.g. yams, potatoes and cocoa yams, etc. are wide spread. As a result, they grow well in both the savannah and the forest regions. Rice can grow both in swampy areas and dry savannah.
Tree crops like palm tree and coconut. Fruits like orange, mango, banana, cashew; vegetables like tomatoes, cabbage,lettuce and other leafy vegetables are all found in the forest region. However with irrigation, they are well grown in the savannah and drier regions. Carrot and onions are available in the dry region or the savannah.
Livestock is widely spread; however, cattle, sheep, and goat are found more in the savannah region where there is abundant grass.
Poultry is very common because poultry farming can be practiced anywhere. Poultry produces meat and eggs for the family.
Fish do well in the riverine area and the coastal regions, e.g. in the Niger delta areas of Nigeria and banks of river Niger etc.
Sub topic 2: Various food nutrients-carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils (lipids),Vitamins, minerals and water.
Classifications of foods in the locality
Foods in our locality can be classified using two broad parameters.,
- According to their nutrient content (nutrient density).
- According to their functions (food groups).
Foods in our locality can be classified based on their nutrient content and their food sources. These include:
- Carbohydrates: the foods that contain carbohydrate majorly are: maize, sorghum, millet,rice, potatoes, yams, cassava, wheat, sweets, etc.
- Proteins: these can be found majorly in the following foods: beans, soya beans, groundnuts, bean seeds, meat, fish, milk, eggs, etc.
- Fats and oils: these are present both in animal and plant food sources. Examples are groundnut oil, palm oil, butter, sun seed oil lard,glee, etc.
- Vitamins and minerals: these are found mainly in fruits and vegetables, e.g. oranges,grape fruits, mangoes, tomatoes, cabbage,lettuce,amaranthus and other leafy vegetables .g, carrots, onions, pepper, etc.
- Water: rain water, pump water,well water, borehole,fruits,other liquids like beverages, etc. water is available in all the foods we consume. Dry and processed foods contain a minimum quantity of water which is referred to as residual moisture.
Food has three broad functions which are also termed as food groups.
- Energy giving foods
- Body building foods
- Protective foods
- Energy giving foods: these are carbohydrates and fatty foods. Their sources include maize, sorghum, millet,rice, wheat, potatoes, yams, cassava, groundnut oil,palm oil,butter, etc.
- Body building foods: these are mainly protein foods. Sources are beans, groundnuts, been seeds, meat, fish, milk, eggs,etc.
- Protective foods:these are so called because they help to fight against infections and diseases in the body. Their sources include oranges, mangoes, cashew, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, carrots, onions, pepper, etc.
List the classes of food and give examples.
- Objective test: Filling the gaps with the appropriate answers.
- Foods we eat provide nourishing elements known as ………….
- Fats and oils are present both in …………… and………. food sources.
- ……………..is any substances, solid or liquid, which when taken provides the body with materials for growth and repair; heat and energy; as well as regulation of body functions to bring about good health.
- …………… are energy given foods.
- ………….. foods helps to fight against infections and diseases in the body.
(1). Identify the various foods in the locality
(2). List the various food nutrients.
Read Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school 1 by F.A. Bakare et el; (pages15-18)
Pre- reading assignment:
Read about classification of food nutrients sources and functions.
- Evans food and nutrition for SSS book 1 by F.A et al; Evans brothers Nigeria limited.
2.Exam focus foods and nutrition for WASSCE and SSCE by J.O Olusanya et al University press.
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