Dietary deficiency diseases e.g. kwashiorkor, obesity, marasmus etc.

WEEK : 4



TOPIC:  Dietary deficiency diseases.

CONTENT:   (i)         Dietary deficiency disease e.g. Kwashiorkor, obesity,marasmus, etc.

                        (ii)        Signs,symptoms and causes of deficiency disease.

Sub-topic 1:       

Dietary deficiency diseases.

Deficiency disease are disease that result from malnutrition as a result ofun balance nutrient, intake when there is inadequate consumption of too little or  too much of one or many nutrients, deficiency disease can occur.

Examples of deficiency diseases: Protein deficiency diseases arediseases that result from lack of protein in the body. E.g. kwashiorkor. Kwashiorkor deficiency disease is common among children. It is characterized by retention of fluid and accumulation of fatty acid in the liver and oedema.


  1. Poor growth and development among children
  2. The children may appear thin with wasted muscles.
  3. Hair colour may change from black to brown
  4. Hair may stand erect instead of coiling
  5. The child may look anemic due to insufficient blood.
  6. Fluid may also accumulate beneath the skin particularly around the hand and legs e.g. (odema)
  7. Diarrhoea may also occur.
  8. The stomach may be protruded.
  9. The child may appear miserable and apathetic.
  10. A flaky –paint dermatitis condition whereby dark pigmented patches appear on the skin is also



These are disease that occurs in the body when the calorie value of the diet is inadequate.

The signs and symptoms are

  1. The bulk of the muscles and glands reduce in size.
  2. The patience become thin and the skin laxes around the upper arm and abdomen.
  3. The eye may appear dull and sunken.

4.There is often reduced systolic blood pressure due to reduction in size of the heart.

5.The body temperature may fall below normal resulting to hypothermia.

6.Restlessness, irritability and indifference to others.

  1. They are prone to infections.
  2. Obesity; Obesity is accumulation of excess fat in the body. It is a chronic medical problem prevalent in children as well as adult in the affluent societies. It is as a result of over nutrition.


  1. Excessive intake of calories or energy more than expenditure over a long period of time.
  2. Heredity –Obesity is an inherited trait, fat parents tend to have fat children.
  3. . Metabolic disturbances; this is the belief thatenzymes that are responsible for lipid (fat) synthesis act differently in obese than the normal person.
  4. Environmental and social factors.
  5. Technological advancement in the recent times has provided much supply of appetizing food with much tendency to consume more of it.




  1. State five symptoms of kwashiorkor.
  2. Explain three causes of obesity
  3. Define obesity.

Sub topic 2:    Symptoms of obesity

  • Body composition; obese individuals are very big with large frame and body weight.This is determined by their body mass index which expresses body weight inrelation toheight.
  • Mechanical disability; Osteoarthritis of the knees, hips and spines.
  • Metabolic result disorder; Metabolism of glucose may be impaired which can result to diabetics mellitus.
  • Cardiovascular disorder; obesity predisposes an individual to a number of cardiovascular risk factor e.g. Hypertension, high cholesterol etc.

Marasmus: It is protein –energy malnutrition-disease. This is a situation where there is inadequate supply of all nutrients.It is child equivalentof starvation in adult.


(a)Early and abrupt weaning.

(b) Rapid succession of pregnancy.

(c) Dirty, unhygienic and unsound artificial feeding of infant with very dilute milk which result in low diet.

(d) Childhood disease and infections that leads to weight loss.


  1. Lack of growth and poor development.
  2. Feeling uncomfortable.
  3. Dehydrated body.
  4. Diarrhoea
  5. Weak muscles
  6. Look of anaemic

7 Lack of appetite.


  1. State 5 symptoms of obesity.
  2. Define marasmus and mention 4 causes of marasmus.
  3. List 4 symptoms of marasmus.




`Vitamin deficiency disease varies according to vitamin.

  • Vitamin –B: Deficiency Disease (Beriberi).

Symptoms:      Loss of appetite, retarded growth, fatigue, nervousness and shortness of breath.

  • Vitamin – B3: Deficiency disease (Angular stomatisis).

Symptoms:      Cracks at the comers of the mouth, sores on the tongue, loss of appetite, retarded growth.


  • Niacin B3: Deficiency disease (Pellagra)

Symptoms:         Skin disorder (dermatitis), nervous, and diarrhea.

  • VitaminB12 Deficiency disease ( Anemia)

Symptoms       Shortage of blood.

  • Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Deficiency disease: scurvy

Symptoms:      General weakness of the body, bleeding, and swollen gums, reduce immunity to cold,delayed healing of wounds, anemia due to effect of vitamin c absorption of iron.

  • Vitamin: Folic acid Deficiency disease— Anemia. Symptoms: Shortage of blood


  • Vitamin A (Retinol) Deficiency disease— Night blindness, xerpthalamin,

Symptoms:   Inability to see properly in dim light.

  • Vitamin D (Calciferol) Deficiency disease: Symptom    (a) Poor development of bones.


(b) Excessive sweating of the head (c) Delay in child developmental stages, bow legs knocked knees or K- Legs.

In adult:  Deficiency disease is (Osteomalacia)

Symptoms:  (a) Pain in the ribs, pelvic and legs, feet appear.

© There can be fracture or pelvic bone deformation.


Vitamin K      Diseases deficiency     Heamorrhage

Symptoms       Inability of blood to cloth.


Mineral :         Calcium and phosphorus;

Deficiency disease      Poor bone development

Symptoms       Weak bone prone to easy fracture.


Sodium deficiency diseases   oedema   permeability

Symptoms       Poor membrane.


Iron deficiency disease          Anemia

Symptoms       Fatigue, loss of weight and dizziness.


Iodine Deficiency disease      goiter

Enlargement of thyroid gland

Zinc deficiency disease; Hypogausia

Symptoms; Diminishedsensitivity  to taste, slow growth and poor development

Sulphur;  Deficiency Disease; Skin, hair, and nail deformation

Symptom;   Deficiency   poor development of skin , hair and nail.

General  Evaluation ;

  1. Protien deficiency disease is called
  2. dehydration b. diabetes c. kwashiorkor  d.  marasmus
  3. One of the causes of marasmus is
  4. Early and abrupt weaning  b.heredity  c .eating disorder d.dehydration
  5. Deficiency disease caused by lack of protein and energy known as protein and energy malnutrition (P E M) is _____ a. Kwashiorkor b. marasmus c.obesity d. Ostomalacia.
  6. Which of these is a disease cause by vitaminA.Deficiency( a.) Night blindness b. Rickets c. obesity d.angular stomatisis.

Essay  test;

  1. State two causes of dietary deficiency disease
  2. What are the deficiency diseases of the following minerals.

I calcium,    iron,  c.iodine,   d. zinc.

Weekend   Assignment; Read  food  and nutrition for senior secondary schools by F.A. BAKAERE, H. B. BALA,N.M.EZE page 67—75,

Pre-Reading –Assignment;  Read kitchen plans, Equip