1. Flour mixture: (a) Types of flour in cookery – (i) whole wheat flour
(ii) All – purpose flour (iii) instant blending flour etc.
(b) Raising agents – (i) air (ii) baking powder (iii) yeast (iv) palm wine (v) steam. Over ripe bananas etc
2. Flour mixture: (c) flour mixture – (i) cakes, buns and sweets (ii)pastries (iii) breads
3. Flour mixture: practical
4. Flour mixture: (d) flood flavouring and colourings (i) natural and artificial
(ii) Food colouring materials (e) flours from local food stuff in cookery.
5. Food study: Eggs – (a) type of eggs (b) nutritional value of eggs (c) test for egg (d) egg cookery (e) Uses of eggs in cookery
6. Food study: Eggs (practical)
8. Milk and milk products (a) nutritive value of milk and milk products (b) types of milk (c) types of milk products – “wara” (local cheese) (d) uses of milk
9. Milk and milk products (Practical)
10. Revision
11. Examination














(a) Types of flour in cookery – (i) whole wheat flour (ii) all-purpose flour (iii) instant blending flour etc.
(b) All purpose flour.
The term flour refers to the powder derived from ground cereals such as wheat, cassava, corn, sorghum, yam, plantain, rice, cocoyam etc.

Wheat flour: wheat is usually milled into flour before being prepared as food. Wheat flour includes: whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour, instant blending flour, self- raising flour, cake flour, pastry flour, hard wheat flour, soft wheat flour and composite flour.

Types Qualities
1. Whole wheat flour i. Contains all the natural constituents of wheat unaltered
ii. High fat content
iii. prone to rancidity
iv. Cannot stand long period of storage

2. All purpose flour i. Intermediate to bread and cake flour for all cookery purposes
ii. granular when rubbed between the fingers.

3. Instant blending flour i. Granular texture of uniform particle size.
ii. Dust free, disperses quickly in cold water.
iii. Free –flouring, dust not require pre-sifting

4. Soft wheat flour i. has soft talcum- like powder feel.
ii. Not granular
iii good for cakes, pastries, cookies and crackers

5. Composite flour i. Mixtures of two or more flours in specific ratio.
Ii used in baking.
Non wheat flour: These are produced from other foods apart from wheat, such as corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yam, plantain, beans, etc. They are used in the powder or grain form. They can also be used in the production of pastries, puddings, cakes, etc either in whole or in combination with wheat flour.
Sub-Topic 2: Raising agents:
(i) Air
(ii) Baking powder
(iii) Yeast
(iv) Palm wine
(v) Steam
(vi) Over ripe bananas etc

Raising or leavening agents are substances that produce gas in flour mixture which cause them to rise and become lighter, bigger, softer in texture and porous after cooking. The use of raising agent is based on the principle that hot air rises and expands. There are different varieties of raising agents.
(1) AIR
Sometimes, enough air may be incorporated by mechanical mixing to produce sufficient aeration during baking. This can be achieved by beating the flour mixture until enough air is incorporated into the mixture. When the mixture is baked, the incorporated air expands and then causes the product to rise. Air incorporated into egg white by beating, is used as a raising agent for omelettes, sponge cakes etc.
Baking powder is a mixture of an acid and an alkali i.e. cream of tartar or tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate or bicarbonate of some starchy ingredients such as rice flour or corn flour. Sodium bicarbonate is the gas from the bicarbonate and the flour acts as an inert filter to absorb moisture. A typical baking powder contains 20% sodium bicarbonate, 40% acid material and 20% flour. If tartaric acid is used instead of cream of tartar, use same quantity of bicarbonate and tartaric acid. This is because the strength of tartaric acid is double that of cream of tartar. After mixing these three ingredients, store in an air-tight container. When the acid and alkali in the baking powder react during cooking, they give off carbon (iv) oxide, which is responsible for the rising of the product.
The scientific name for yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is made up of large number of minute cells. When kept cool and dry, the cells are inactive. They grow rapidly when come in contact with warmth, moisture and little sugar, giving off carbon (iv oxide which works through the dough, making it light. Extreme heat kills yeast and it can have no further activity. Cold retards or hinders its action, but does not kill it. Apart from the carbon dioxide produced, yeast also provides alcohol which is lost during cooking.

Fresh palm wine is often used for commercial bread production because it contains yeast and it is economical. Palm wine is often used for large scale bread production because it is more economical than yeast. Too much cold, heat and sugar are detrimental to the action of palm wine because of the yeast it contains.
This is an effective raising agent. Steam from boiling water can act as a raising agent because it occupies is more than that of the water that produced it. Steam is used as a raising agent in the production of pop-over and cream puffs. Apart from used on its own, steam contributes to the aeration of baked products in which other raising agents are used.
At times, over ripe bananas may be used for large scale bread production. Over ripe bananas are used to produce a raising agent with the same characteristic as yeast or palm wine. The over ripe bananas are left to ferment before they are used raising a agent.

Sub-Topic 3: practical on the types of flour

1. Explain the concept of yeast as a leavening agent.
2. Describe how baking powder as a raising agent works in flour mixture.
3. Describe how steam works in flour mixtures as a raising agent.
4. Give three characteristics of instant blending flour.
5. Enumerate the types of wheat flour
6. Discuss the basic method of preparing flour standard measurement in flour mixtures.
7. Discuss the use of local flour mixture in cookery.
1. _________ is an example of raising agent. (a) baking powder (b) garri (c) powder
2. Raising or leavening agents re substances that produce ________ in flour. (a) CO2 (b)carbon (c) gas
3. ___________ is not a raising agent. (a) yeast (b) steam (c) air (d) water
4. Baking powder is a mixture of ________ and _______.
5. Whole wheat flour is also known as ___________.
6. ___________ is a quality of whole wheat flour
7. __________ is not an example of flour except. (a) poundo flour (b) all purpose flour (c) whole wheat flour
8. Which of these is the fat finely shredded into the flour? (a) short crust pastry (b)flan pastry (c) suet crust pastry (d) rough puff pastry
9. Which of these flour products is produced using yeast as a raising agent? (a) cake (b) scone (c) bread (d) pastry
10. Which of these is a condition needed by yeast to become active? (a) warmth, moisture (b) moisture, pepper (c) fat, time (d) salt, vanilla
11. When a cake is heavy, the following will be the reasons: i when the mixture is fluffy ii. Too little raising agent iii. Over mixing of flour iv. Too hot an oven
(a) i, ii and iv only (b) i, iii and iv only (c) i, ii, and iii only (d) ii, iii, and iv only
12. Which of the following raising agents is used in an omelette? (a) steam (b) air (c) baking powder (d) bicarbonate of soda
Read Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school book 2 by F.A. Bakare et al page (103 – 104)
– Read about condiments and seasoning (uses in cookery)
1. Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary school book 2 by F. A. Bakare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.
2. Exam Focus foods and nutrition for WASSCE and SSCE by J.O. Olusanya et al. University Press plc.

CONTENT: (c) Flour mixture
(i) Cakes, buns and sweets
(ii) Pastries
(iii) Breads
General rules for making cakes
(a) Get all necessary materials and utensils ready and within reach
(b) Prepare all ingredients i.e. sift flour, weigh out flour and other dry ingredients, grease the pans, heat the ovens.
(c) Use good quality ingredients, e.g. fresh eggs, dry flour, fresh fat etc.
(d) Beat cake mixture in an upward direction and handle lightly. Bake immediately after mixing.
(e) Add egg gradually to avoid curdling.
(f) Avoid opening the oven door frequently while baking. This reduces the temperature of the oven. Also, avoid banging the oven door to prevent in rush of cold air.
(g) Do not bake cakes, pastries and other foods together. Steam from the other foods can affect the crispness of pastries and cakes.
(h) Allow cake to set before moving it for any reason.
(i) Cool cakes with high proportion of ingredients in the tin. Never store cakes until they are cold.
(j) If a skewer or clean brown straw inserted into a big cake comes out clean, then the cake is cooked. A cooked small cake leaves no impression when the centre is pressed with a finger.
(k) Cool cakes away from draught. Wrap in grease proof paper.

Methods of making cakes
(a). Rubbing-in-method: This method is used when a small amount of fat to flour is used. The fat is rubbed into the flour with the finger tips, until the mixture look like ‘garri’ or fine bread crumbs.
(b). Creaming method: Fat and sugar, which are often in equal proportion in this method, are beaten together until they are fluffy and creamy.
(c). Whisking method: Unlike the creaming method, in this method, the egg and sugar are whisked together until thick and frothy. At this stage, the flour is folded in lightly. This type of cake goes stale very easily.
(d). Melting method: The fat and the sweetening agent e.g. sugar, treacle, syrup are heated together until they melt. This method is often employed in the production of ginger bread.
Common faults in cake making and their causes
1. Uneven texture- i. Fat insufficient rubbed in
ii. Too little liquid
iii. Too much liquid
2. Close texture- i. Too much fat
ii. Hands too hot when rubbed
iii. Fat to flour ratio incorrect
3. Bad shape- i. Too much liquid
ii. Oven too cold
iii. Too much baking powder
4. Cake sunk in the middle- i. too much liquid used.
ii. too much baking powder used.
iii. cake was removed before it had set
5. Dry- i. Oven door open and banged before cake has set.
ii. too much baking powder used.
iii. oven too hot
Characteristics of a good cake
These are:
1. Externally the cake symmetrical in shape and slightly rounded.
2. The crust is soft, golden brown in colour with no suggestion of sugar crystals
3. The cake feels light.
4. When cut, the cake holds its shape without excessive crumbling
5. The odour and flavour are pleasing.
Recipe of cake
Creaming period
1. Queen cakes
200g flour
125g sugar
½ teaspoon vanilla essence
1 teaspoon baking powder
25gm candied peel
125g fat
2 eggs
10cl milk
50g dried fruit
(a) Cream sugar and fat until the mixture is soft, white and can drop from a spoon at its own accord. Use a wooden spoon.
(b) Add the beaten eggs gradually, continuing with the creaming. Add a little flour if mixture curdles as you are creaming.
(c) Use a metal spoon to fold in a little portion of the flour (about a quarter). Add a little milk.
(d) Add another quarter of the flour and the remaining milk.
(e) Add the dried fruit and the last half of the flour to which baking powder has been added. Add vanilla.
(f) Mix to a dropping consistency, that is, it should be soft enough to drop from the spoon.
(g) Half-fill well greased tins and bake in a moderately hot oven for 20minutes, a little longer for bigger cake.

Rock Buns
Rubbing-in method is used in the making of buns.

Rock buns Recipe
250g of flour
3 table spoons of milk
A pinch of salt
25g candied peel
½ teaspoon mixed spice or ground ginger
100g sugar
100g fat
1 table spoon baking powder
(a) Wash and dry a mixing bowl, sieve flour and baking powder and salt into bowl.
(b) Using the tip of the finger, rub fat into flour until mixture resembles fine “garri” or fine bread crumbs. Entrap air into the mixture by lifting the flour high in the bowl while rubbing.
(c) Stir in the sugar
(d) Beat egg and use it to bind the mixture to a stiff consistency. If a soft consistency is required, add a little milk.
(e) Pile in rough heaps on a greased baking tray
(f) Bake in a moderately hot oven for 20minutes




Swiss Rolls
Swiss roll (whisking method is used here)


100g flour
3 eggs
1/2 tea spoon baking powder
100g sugar
3 table spoon of tepid water
½ tea spoon vanilla essence
(a) Grease a Swiss roll tin and paper. Line the tin with the paper.
(b) Sieve flour with baking powder and sieve sugar separately
(c) Break egg into a mixing bowl, add sugar and whisk vigorously until it double its size and become thick and white. Place the bowl over a pan of hot water while whisking. This help to thicken the mixture and makes i to increase in volume. If water is too hot it will curdle milk and spoil the texture.
(d) Remove bowl from the pan and fold ½ of the flour using a metal spoon. Do not this lightly so as to retain the air which has been whisked into the egg
(e) Fold the remaining flour and everything is absorbed. Add tepid water to make a thick pouring consistency.
(f) Put the mixture into the prepared tin and tilt it to spread it evenly over the surface of the tin.
(g) Bake in a hot oven for about 8 – 10 minutes till golden brown and firm
(h) Turn out on a piece of sugared paper and remove the baking paper carefully.
(i) Trim off all the crisp side edges with a sharp knife and quickly spread with a warm jam.
(j) Make a long cut half way through the sponge, one inch from the end to ease it when rolling.
(k) Roll up. Make the first two twists quite firmly, then roll lightly and leave the roll wrapped in the sugared paper for 10minutes to keep it a good shape.
(l) Remove paper and cool the roll on a cake rack.



Sub-Topic 2: PASTRIES
Pastry is a mixture of flour, fat and milk or water, used to make the counter part of baked foods such as pies. The flour for pastry is often all-purpose flour. The texture of pastry increases with increase in fat.
General Rules for Pastry Making
(a) Flour should be sieved immediately before use; sieving aerates the flour and removes slumps.
(b) All ingredients and the pastry should be kept as cold as possible throughout the process of making and rolling, so as to prevent the fat from melting and making handling difficult.
(c) Use cool water for mixing.
(d) Dough should be soft and elastic, not wet and sticky. If the correct quantity of water is used.
(e) Board and rolling pin should be properly floured. Roll in one direction with short, quick, forward strokes, lifting the rolling pin between each stroke.
(f) Over-dredging the board with flour spoils the proportion and makes the pastry rubbery and tough.
(g) Stretching pastry during rolling makes pastry to shrink when baked.
(h) Maintain normal baking temperature; too hot oven makes pastry to set before expansion, too cool an oven makes fat to melt and run out before it is absorbed by the starch.
(i) Pastry that contains baking powder goes dry when kept for some time. Use immediately.
Common faults in pastry and their causes.
1. Tough crust- i. insufficient fats.
ii. Too much water
iii. Over mixing.
iv. Too much flour on the rolling board.
2. Crumbly crust- i. Too little water
ii. Too much fat.
iii. Self raising flour used.
iv. Insufficient mixing.
3. Crust does not brown- i. Too little water.
ii. Much fat.
iii. Too much flour on board.
4. Shrinks in pan- i. Unbalanced recipe
ii. Too much handling
iii. Tough stored too long in refrigerator
iv. Pastry stretched tightly in pan.
5. Pastry shell blister- i. Pastry fitted too tight in pan.
ii. Oven temperature too low
Types of pastry
1. Short crust pastry: sieve the flour and salt into a bowl. Add fat and rub in gently. Mix to stiff dough with the water. Knead very lightly and handle as little as possible, then roll out evenly and lightly.
2. Flan pastry: sieve the flour and salt together into a bowl. Add the shredding suet and mix well. Pour the water on the flour. Turn the dough on a floured board and kneel very lightly for a minute or two to form into a ball. Cover and leave to relax for five minutes.
3. Rough puff pastry: sieve the flour and salt into a bowl. Cut the butter into walnut- size pieces. Mix these pieces into the flour- do not rub in. Turn on to a surface lightly dredged with corn flour, rest the dough lightly together. Leave to cool and relax before using cook as for puff at 220-230c.
4. Hot water crust pastry: sieve the flour and salt together in a bowl. Put a lad and liquid into a bowl and heat gently until the lad is melted, then bring to the boil. Pour immediately unto flour in one go and mix well with a wooden spoon.

Sub-Topic 3: BREAD
Steps in bread making
(a) Creaming the yeast: if fresh yeast is to be used, place it with a little sugar into a basin and cream until it liquefies. Add half the warm liquid. For dry yeast, put yeast in a little warm water, add sugar and allow to stand until it is well risen.
(b) Settling the sponge: the activity of the yeast starts with this process. Sprinkle a little of the flour over the yeast in the basin. Cover the basin with a damp warm cloth. Keep in a warm place for about 10minutes. Little bubbles are produced as the yeast begins to work through the flour.
(c) Mixing the dough: mix with the hand or with a wooden spoon; use sufficient water to form a soft elastic dough. Mix fruit, spices, eggs etc, at this stage, if they are used in the recipe.
(d) Kneading: Place the mixed dough on a well floured pastry board and knead properly until fingers are free from the dough, which must be free from cracks and lumps.
(e) Rising: Lightly flour a mixing bowl and return the dough to it. Cover it with a damp cloth to prevent it from forming a skin on top. Leave in a warm place to double its size. Grease your bread tins.
(f) Shaping: re-kneed on a floured board about three minutes cut into sizes, one third of the size of tin. Place in tin and press down using knuckles.
(g) Proving: Allow the dough to double its size by keeping it in a warm place.
(h) Baking: Bake in a hot oven to kill the yeast. Reduce temperature after 15minutes. Well cooked bread should rise and golden brown in colour.
Recipe for Bread
15g yeast
100g sugar
1 tumble tepid water
25g fat
50ml milk
1 egg
1 teaspoon salt
(a) Sieve flour and salt containing tepid water, add a teaspoon of sugar and allow to stand for 10 minutes.
(b) Put yeast in a bowl containing tepid water, add a teaspoon of sugar and allow to stand for 10minutes.
(c) Mix the margarine into flour.
(d) Beat the egg, mix with half of the milk
(e) Add mixture, yeast mixture to flour and mix properly
(f) Knead properly and place on a well floured bowl. Allow to rise in a warm place until it doubles it size.
(g) Knead again, lightly for a few minutes and cut into required sizes.
(h) Allow to “prove” in a well greased baking tray for about 15minutes. Glaze with beaten egg.
(i) Bake in a hot oven for 15 – 20minutes, reducing heat towards the end of cooking.


1. Explain pastries.
2. Discuss four types of flour mixtures
3. List five ingredients used in making case.
4. State the step-by-step process of bread making
5. List the entire recipe for cakes, rock buns and Swiss rolls
(1) Chin-chin can be best cooking using one of the following methods.
(a) Roasting (b) grilling (c) boiling (d) frying
(2) _________ is not a method of making cake. (a) rubbing in (b) creaming (c) roasting (d) melting
(3) _________ is not an ingredient for bread. (a) yeast (b) flour (c) alcohol (d) baking powder
(4) Which of this flour is good for making crackers (a) soft wheat flour (b) pastry flour (c) composite flour (d) cake flour?
(5) Palm wine is a raising use for making (a) cake (b) biscuit (c) scones (d) bread
(6) The flour that has just a little aleurone layer while all the other layers are retained with the endosperm is called (a) low extraction rate flour (b) high extraction rate flour (c) non- milled flour (d) middle extraction rate flour.
(7) Low extraction rate flour as compared with high extraction rate has the following advantage (a) they are white (b) they contain less fat (c) they contain phytic acid (d) all of the above.

Read on food flavourings and colourings
– Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book2 by F.A. Bajare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.
– Exam focus foods and nutrition for WASSCE and SSCE by J.O. Olusanya et al. University Press Plc

CONTENT: practical


CONTENT: (i) Food Flavourings and colourings
(i) Natural and artificial
(ii) Food colouring materials
(iv) Flours from local stuff in cookery
(i) Natural and artificial
(ii) Food colouring materials
Food flavourings are substances are added to food to give distinctive taste and smell e.g. ginger, ‘ogiri (fermented melon), ‘iru’(fermented locust or soya beans).
Flavourings are added to food to enhance its smell; the appearance and smell of food stimulates the secretion of digestive juices.


Natural and artificial food flavourings


Natural food flavourings Artificial food flavourings
Ginger Curry powder
Cinnamon thyme
Nutmeg green pepper
Pepper vinegar
Rosemary vanilla
Sesame saccharin
Dried okro
Orange peel
Dried crayfish
Ogiri (fermented melon)
Iru (fermented locust/soya bean
Lemon and orange etc.

The most commonly used flavourings are:
1. Bouillon cubes
2. Monosodium glutamate (in form of salt crystals)
Food colourings are natural pigment derived from plant materials, inorganic pigment and cakes (combination of organic colouring matters with metals) and synthetic coal-tar dyes.
Most of the colourings from plant materials and inorganic pigment are legally permitted in most countries. The two main colouring used in foods are ‘cochineal which colours food red and saffron which gives yellow colour. These are natural colourings; synthetic colourings are used in carbonated beverage and icings sugar.

Natural and artificial food colourings
Natural food colourings Artificial food colourings
Carotene Coal tar dyes of different colours e.g. those used in
Turmeric the manufacture of ice-cream, jellies etc. Vanilla
Anthocyanin caramel (from burnt sugar) flavour/ colour enhancers.
Xanthophylls, Carotenoids
Cochineal (from crushed insects)

The flour most commonly used as yam flour, cassava flour, rice flour, beans flour and maize flour. Flour from plantain, bananas, sweet potatoes and cocoyam also has potential use in local food preparation.
Formally, the grinding stone, mortar and pestle are used to process the local staples into meals and flour. The processing of flour by grinding and pounding is laborious and time-consuming but milling machines are gradually gaining popularity in many home. This make it possible to have more varieties of flour available.
Types of Flour
(a) Maize flour: this is not maize starch, ‘ogi’ or ‘akamu’. It is grounded dry maize that is sieved and used for cakes, biscuits and “foo-foo: etc.
(b) Cassava flour: the sweet cassava variety is preferable (where available) peel cassava, grind or grate, tie under a heavy eight to drain it of water. Dry in sun, sieve and dry again.
(c) Rice flour: local rice is preferable. Remove dirt, wash well and soak overnight. Dry in the sun. Grind and dry again. Use in making rice/banana cake, rice “foo-foo”, etc
(d) Yam flour: peel, wash, cut and dry white yam. Slice thinly today. Grind when properly dry.
(e) Bean flour: soak beans, dehull, dry and grind. Use in making moinmoin or akara.
(f) Plantain or banana flour: wash and remove skin of unripe plantain or banana. Cut into thin even slices. Dry in the sun. Grind to flour, use preparing dishes like “mosa, ukpo”, banana fritters, biscuits and cakes.

1. _________ is an example of local flour. (a) cassava flour (b) wheat flour (c) all purpose flour
2. Food flavourings add ________ to food. (a) smell (b) taste (c) distinctive taste and smell
3. Food colourings are natural pigment derived mostly from _______. (a) Animal (b) plant materials (c) nutrients.
4. Food additives should be used (a) sparingly (b) carelessly (c) lavishly (d) all the above.

1. List and explain 3 local flours
2. Enumerate food flavouring and colours used in flour mixture.
3. Discuss the local flour mixture in cookery.

Read Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book 2 by F. A, Bakare et al. Page (110-112)
Read about food study of eggs
– Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book2 by F.A. Bajare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.
– Exam Focus foods and nutrition for WASSC and SSCE by J.O Olusanya et al. University Press plc.


CONTENT: (a) type of eggs (b) nutritional value of eggs (c) test for egg (d) egg cookery (e) Uses of eggs in cookery

Sub-Topic 1: TYPES OF EGG
Eggs are oval objects with a thin but hard shell produced by female reptiles. An egg is composed of several parts which perform different functions. Beside the shell, yolk and white, the egg contains an air cell, chalazae, a cutline membrane and shell membrane

(a) Fertile Egg: these are eggs that can be incubated and developed into a chick.
(b) Organic egg: are produced from hens that have been given feeds that are aided by commercial fertilizers, pesticides or herbicides.
(c) Free range Egg: a name given to egg produced by hens that have been raised outdoors.


Eggs are fantastic foods that contain a hug number of vitamins and minerals tat are required by the body for optimal health and growth. They provide vitamin A, B and especially a rich source of vitamin B12 and B2, D and E. They are rich in calcium, iron, selenium phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. They are low in sugar and do not contain any carbohydrate and vitamin C.
Eggs provide essential amino acid to the body and their proteins are highly digestible.
A large boiled egg only contains 78calories and 5.3g fat. The fat present is saturated and not good to the body. The level of cholesterol in egg is high.
Test for egg
Fill a fairly deep bowl with salted water and carefully lower the egg into the water. A very fresh egg will immediately sink to the bottom and lie flat on its side. This is because the air cell within the egg is small. The egg would also be quite heavy.
When an egg is held against a source of light, it should be bright to the eye and not cloudy or opaque.
Another way to test for egg’s freshness is when you shaken, it should not produce any sound.
Sub-Topic 2: EGG COOKERY
Eggs are versatile, they may be boiled (hard or soft), poached, fried, scrambled, baked, used to make an omelette, pancake batter etc. They can be added to savoury or sweet dishes etc.
Methods of cooking Eggs
1. Boiling
2. Poaching
3. Frying
4. Scrambling
5. Plain omelette
1. Eggs are used to increase food value and to improve the flavour of foods to which they are added, e.g. doughnuts, banana pancakes, egg and corned beef stew
2. As a binding medium, e.g. fish cakes, yam balls
3. For coating foods for frying e.g. fish, yam balls, etc
4. As thickening agent e.g. in sauce, custard etc.
5. As a raising agent in cake making
6. For garnishing: hard boiled eggs are sliced or wedged and used for garnishing salad, etc. The yolk may be sieved and the white chopped foe garnishing, eat or fish dishes.
7. For glazing pastry, bread dough, biscuits etc, before baking
8. Eggs are valuable in the diet especially in that of growing children and invalid because they are rich in nourishment and are easily digested.
9. Eggs act as emulsifying agent, e.g. in creams like mayonnaise and cake mixture.
10. They serve as core part of the dish.
11. Eggs are used to glaze pastry before baking to give a golden brown gloss t the finished dish
12. They may be incorporate into a delicious home-made recipe, e.g. cake making, custard, puddings and nourishing drinks.
1. Give 10 uses of Eggs.
2. Explain practically how egg is used as raising agents.
3. Describe the use of eggs in cookery
4. Explain the binding property of egg in cake making
5. Describe the garnishing ability of egg in a practical you demonstrated.
6. Explain the methods of cooking eggs.
7. Describe the use of eggs in cookery.
8. Explain the process of poaching egg.
9. Draw and label the structure of an egg
10. Identify different types of eggs
11. Discuss the nutritive value of eggs.

1. In the baking of cakes, _________ is one of the uses of egg. (a) bleaching (b) raising (c) firming
2. Eggs are used to ________ except. (a) garnish (b)bind (c) dissolve
3. In water test, a good egg wills ________. (a) float (b) sink (c) break
4. When a good egg is taken close to the eye, it should be. (a) opaque (b) translucent (c) bright to the eye
5. ___________ is a method of cooking egg except. (a) boiling (b) Poaching (c) sterilizing
6. Which of the following are uses of eggs? i. Boil in hot water ii. Serve as a coating agent iii. add to nutritive value of the dishes iv use as mayonnaise v. serve as glazing agent.
(a) i, ii and iii only (b) ii, iii and iv only (c) i, iv and v only (d) ii, iii and v only
7. The yolk of an egg contains (a) carbohydrate, riboflavin and calcium (b) protein, water, iron and sulphur (c) carbohydrate, iron, and ascorbic acid (d) protein, fats and vitamins
8. The dark ring between the albumen and yolk of a boiled egg is caused by (a) iron in the yolk (b) fat in the yolk (c) protein in the yolk (d) carotene in the yolk
9. Which of the following is not a use of an egg? (a) raising agent (b) a glaze (c) a dehydrating agent (d) an emulsifier
10. Which of the following is an indication of the freshness of an egg (a) light weight (b) smooth shell (c)pungent smell (d) strong smell
Read Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book 2 by F. A, Bakare et al. Page (59 – 60)
Read about milk and milk products
– The student cookery book by Enid O’Reily-Wright
– Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book2 by F.A. Bajare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited.

TOPIC: Food study: Eggs (practical)

TOPIC: Milk and milk products
CONTENT: Nutritive value of milk and milk products, Types of milk
Sub-Topic 1: Nutritive value of milk and milk products
Milk is a creamy yellowish liquid formed in the mammary glands of mammal and is used by all female mammals for feeding their young ones. Milk can be produced from cows, horses, goats, ewes, monkeys, dogs, sheep etc. Cow’s milk is the most commonly used worldwide.

Milk contains a wide range of nutrients. The composition of macro-nutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) in milk is a balance one
(A) Carbohydrate: the type found in milk is lactose which is often called milk sugar. Lactose is digested by the enzyme lactase into simpler sugar that the body can absorb.
(B) Fat: the fat portion of milk, called the butter, is in form of minute globules which tend to rise to the milk to from a cream line. The fatty acids in milk are mostly of the saturated and mono-saturated types, although there are also small amount of poly unsaturated fatty acids in milk. The minimum content acceptable worldwide is 3.25%
(C) Protein: the protein in milk is of high quality. They are rich in all the essential amino acids. They are casein, lacto albumen and lacto globulin.
(D) Vitamins: milk contains both water-soluble vitamins e.g. thiamine, B1, riboflavin, B2, B12 and fat soluble vitamins such as A,D,E, and K. Milk also contains carotene which is responsible for the yellowish colour of milk at times.
(E) Minerals: milk contains all the trace elements known to be important to the body. E.g. zinc, iodine, selenium and chromium but relatively poor source of iron, copper and manganese. Milk is rich in some essential mineral elements such as calcium and phosphorus.
3.7% 4.9% 87.2% 3.5% 0.7%

Sub-Topic 2: TYPES OF MILK
1. Fresh whole milk: This is the milk that is obtained directly from the cow in which none of the nutrients have been removed.
2. Skimmed milk: The fat content has been removed, and it is therefore made predominantly of protein, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins.
3. Evaporated milk: This is whole from which about 60% of the water content has been removed.
4. Dried or powdered milk: Over 90% of the water content has been removed and it is then milled to powdered form.
5. Condensed milk: This is evaporated milk to which a safe and suitable nutritive sweetener usually sugar has been added. So it is sweeter and thicker than evaporated milk.

Methods of processing milk
Milk is heated for a short time (about 30 minutes) at a temperature below 1000C (nearly 700C) to kill at the harmful bacteria present in it. High temperature, short time (HTST) method is being used nowadays, i.e. milk is heated quickly to 710C, held at the temperature for 15seconds and cooled rapidly.

Milk is first pasteurized and then forced through a fine aperture under pressure. This breaks the fat globules, completely that a cream line is formed. The fat remains evenly distributed throughout the milk to obtain a homogenous fluid. This is usually achieved by passing the whole fresh milk though a very tiny nozzle in a special piece of equipment known as homogenizer.
Milk is pre-heated and homogenized before filling into bottles which are closed in an air-tight seal (hermetically sealed). The bottles are then heated to 1040C – 110C and kept at this temperature for 20 to 30minutes. Sterilized milk contains no bacteria and the bottles are vacuum sealed and can thus be kept for several weeks without opening. The high temperature used in sterilization cause slight caramelization of the lactose producing a noticeable change in flavour and appearance. There is also reduction in the nutritive value with loss of one third of the thiamine (vitamin B1) and half of the ascorbic acid (vitamin C), folic acid and vitamin B12. Sterilized milk is a good stand by; with its creamy taste, it is ideal for puddings.
(D) EVAPORATED MILK: This is homogenized and concentrated (by removal of about 60% of its water content) to about half the volume of the original milk without adding sugar. It is sterilized in the can and some of the thiamine (B1) and vitamin C are destroyed
(E) CONDENSED MILK: It is also a concentrated form of milk. It is made from whole skimmed or semi-skimmed milk with sugar added.
(F) DRIED MILK: Over 90% of the water content has been removed and it is then milled to powder. The ranges of dried milk available include skimmed milk, skimmed milk to which vegetable fat has been added known as filled milk.
(G) CULTURED OR FERMENTED MILK: Milk may be fermented with/of products specific microorganism to form a variety with characteristic level of acidity and flavour development. The best known milk produce is yoghurt. Others are cultured butter milk, ‘nono’, etc.
Soya milk: the flour derived from soya bean milk is used to make a kind of milk which has about the same protein content as cow’s milk and can be used in a similar way.
Milk products include fermented and non-fermented varieties. Examples of fermented milk products are yoghurt, sour milk curds, cheese and local chesses called (wara). Milk products that are not fermented are butter, caesinates and milk ice-cream.
(a) Yoghurt
This is obtained from heat-treated, homogenized milk which is inoculated with a culture containing equal amount of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria. The essential change produced by these bacteria is that the lactose in milk is
converted to lactic acid.

(b) Cheese
There are more than 800 different types of cheese; the basic principles of manufacturing are the same. Milk is coagulated and the solid formed is cut into small pieces to allow the whey (the liquid part of the milk) to drain off. The curd (solid part of the milk) is dried, salt is added and the cheese and texture of the cheese is lightly pressed, a soft crumby cheese is produced but it’s more firmly pressed, a harder cheese is produced.
Types of cheese
The basic types of cheese evolved as a product of different types of milk regional environmental conditions, accidents and gradual improvements by trial and error. They are classified into:
– Soft unripened, e.g. cottage chesses, ripened, e.g. camembert
– Semisoft e.g. Munster, limburger, Roquefort, gorgonzola stallion, wenslaydale etc
– Hard e.g. cheddar, granular, Swiss, emmentaler, gruyere, caciocavallo
– Very hard, e.g. parmesan, Romano, sapsago, spleen, etc
– Whey cheese, e.g. my sost, primo’s, ricotta etc
Other types of English Cheese are Caerphilly, Cheshire, Derby, Dorset blue, Double Gloucester, Lancaschire, and Leicester
(c) Wara
This is a local cheese that is common in the northern part of Nigeria. It is produced by eh fermentation of milk protein. Whole milk is used for its production.
1. It can be drunk raw
2. It can be cooked, used as a basis of a large variety of dishes or as an accompaniment.
3. Milk products e.g. yoghurt is important in several ways:
(a) It can be taken in picnics, camping as dessert.
(b) It can be served on breakfast cereals;
(c) It can be served as refreshing meal course on a hot day
(d) It can be added to dishes to improve their flavour
(e) It adds variety and flavour to stews and ripe dishes
(f) It may be used with fruits and vegetable salad or added to salad dressing.
(g) It can be served with flans and pastries instead of cream
4. Cheese as a milk product is equally important in several ways;
(a) It has high food value
(b) It can be eaten raw and useful for sandwiches and quick meals.
(c) It can be used to supplement carbohydrate foods e.g. macaroni, cheese etc.
(d) It can be used in cooking as in sauces, scones, cheese pastries, pies, flans and cheese cake.
(e) It can be consumed as snack with bread or biscuits
(f) It can be used for small savoury dishes e.g. cheese straw.
5. Milk is an essential ingredient in the production of dishes and snacks such as rice or semolina pudding, milk shake, milk drink, pan cake etc.
(1) List and explain the types of milk.
(2) List the types of milk products
(3) Discuss the nutritive value of milk and milk products
(4) Discuss the various types of milk
(5) Describe the nutritive value of milk
(6) State the uses of milk
(7) List the type of cheese


1. What is the fat content of milk called? (a) fatty acids (b) glycerol (c) butter fat (d) fat globules
2. Which of these is milk from plant sources? (a) filled milk (b) homogenized milk (c) soya milk (d) condensed milk
3. Which of the type of milk has 90% of its water content removed? (a) cultured milk (b) dried milk (c) evaporated milk (d) butter milk
4. _________ is a soft unripened cheese. (a) cottage cheese (b) cheddar cheese (c) Swiss cheese (d) granola cheese
5. Which of these is a fermented milk product? (a) ice cream (b) cachinnates (c) “wara” (d) butter

6. Milk can be drunken ________. (a) raw (b) dried (c) boiled (d) cooked

7. Milk is often called perfect because it (a) is in liquid form (b) is easily digested (c) it contains second protein and fat (d) it contains all essential food values

8. The process whereby milk is heated and then cooled rapidly in order to destroy harmful germs is known as (a) sterilization (b) pasteurization (c) evaporation (d) condensation
– Evans food and nutrition for senior secondary schools book2 by F.A. Bakare et al; Evans Brothers Nigeria Limited

TOPIC: Milk and milk products

WEEK 10: Revision
WEEK 11: Examination

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