Diphthong, Verb Tenses and Air Transportation







Subject : 

English Studies

Term :

Third Term


Week One

Class :


Previous lesson : 

The pupils have previous knowledge of Grammar: Adverbs : Identification, definition,

Topic :


Speech Work: Diphthong

Grammar: Verb—Introduction

Comprehension: Imagination is real

Vocabulary Development: Air Transport

Composition: Descriptive Essay

Literature: Use of Recommended Text

Behavioural objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to

  • understand the idea or concept of Diphthong
  • mention the types of words as examples of Diphthong
  • Define verb, give examples of verbs and list types of Tenses
  • say the importance and benefits of air transportation

Instructional Materials :

  • Wall charts
  • Pictures
  • Related Online Video
  • Flash Cards

Methods of Teaching :a

  • Class Discussion
  • Group Discussion
  • Asking Questions
  • Explanation
  • Role Modelling
  • Role Delegation


Reference Materials :

  • Scheme of Work
  • Online Information
  • Textbooks
  • Workbooks
  • 9 Year Basic Education Curriculum
  • Workbooks


Content :




identifying Types of Nouns

Identify the nouns in the following sentences

  1. No one understands why whales sometimes strand themselves.
  2. Since 1989, people in a group called Project Jonah have used an inflatable pontoon to rescue stranded whales and other marine mammals
  3. More than two thousand marine mammals have been helped in recent times.

Identifying Types of Pronouns

Identify the pronouns in the sentences below and state their types.

  1. Which of the animals do you think has the worst reputation?
  2. I believe the skunk is the animal that most people want to avoid.
  3. The skunk can easily protect itself from others.
  4. It can spread those nearby with a bad-smelling liquid.
  5. This is a repellent that drives away predator.

Speech Work: Diphthong

diphthong is a sound formed by combining two vowels in a single syllable.

  • /aʊ/ as in “Town” This diphthong can have many spellings and is commonly written as ow or ou within English words. …
  • /aɪ/ as in “Light” …
  • /eɪ/ as in “Play” …
  • /eə/ as in “Pair” …
  • /ɪə/ as in “Deer” …
  • /oʊ/ as in “Slow” …
  • /ɔɪ/ as in “Toy” …
  • /ʊə/ as in “Sure”

The process of moving from one vowel sound to another is called gliding, which is why another name for a diphthong is a gliding vowel but they are also known as compound vowels, complex vowels, or moving vowels.

The word ‘diphthong’ is from a Greek word, which means double sound. Diphthongs are also vowels. The difference is that while a pure vowel contains only only one sound (monothong),  a diphthong contains two vowel sounds with a glide from first vowel to the next. Examples:

/ei/  as found in rain, cake, fake, pay, etc.

/ᶕu/  as found in spoke, go, home, etc.

/ai/ as found in fight, bite, cite, kite, etc.

/au/ as found in cow, house, plough, bound, etc.

/ᴐi/ as found in foil, joy, toy, boy, etc.

/iᶕ/ as found in hear, beer, here, etc.

/ea/ as found in spear, hair, care, swear

/uᶕ/ as found in tour, poor, sure, etc.


Grammar: Verb—Introduction

A verb is an action word or a doing word . Examples of verbs that are doing works are bark , shout , write , joke , say etc

A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English.

In fact, you can’t have a sentence or a question without a verb! That’s how important these “action” parts of speech are.

The verb signals an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. Whether mental, physical, or mechanical, verbs always express.

A verb is used to say what action is done in a sentence .

Examples like

  • Olu eats  rice
  • Sade washes her uniform every Friday
  • I do my homework by myself everyday

Although it is not all verbs are action words . Some verbs are used to say what things or situations are . Examples of such verbs are

  • I am happy
  • Daddy is here
  • It is good to be good
  • Where are you

It is the verb of a sentence that will determine the tense of a sentence . Hence we have twelve basic verb tenses in English grammar which are

The Twelve main tenses: of verbs Which are 

  • Simple present tense : It is used to express habitual actions that we do daily always regularly or habitually e.g The pastor prays  every day.
  • Present progressive:  ( Present continuous Tense )   This tense is used to express action that is going on NOW.  James is dancing right now.
  • Simple past tense : This tense is used to express action that was done last week , last month , last year e.g  Agnes wrote a letter last night .
  • Past progressive:  ( Past Continuous Tense )   This tense is used to express actin that was going on during the period in question .  She was writing when he called.
  • Simple future: This tense is used to express action that are yet to be done . They are used to say what we shall do tomorrow , next week , next month or some few days to come e.g She will write tomorrow, He will see you when you get there
  • Future progressive: This tense is used to say what we shall be doing in the nearest possible future e.g She will be writing when you arrive.
  • Present perfect tense : Present Perfect tense is used to express action that has just been done . Daddy has just gone out , she has just swept the floor , She has written Chapter 1.
  • Present perfect progressive: She has been writing for 2 hours.
  • Past perfect: She had written Chapter 3 before she started Chapter 4.
  • Past perfect progressive: She had been writing for 2 hours before her friends arrived.
  • Future perfect: She will have written Chapter 4 before she writes Chapter 5.
  • Future perfect progressive: She will have been writing for 2 hours by the time her friends come over



Physical Verbs – Definition and Examples

Physical verbs are action verbs. They describe specific physical actions. If you can create a motion with your body or use a tool to complete an action, the word you use to describe it is most likely a physical verb.


Physical Verb Examples

The physical verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  1. Let’s run to the corner and back.
  2. I hear the train coming.
  3. Call me when you’re finished with class.


Mental Verbs – Definition and Examples

Mental verbs have meanings that are related to concepts such as discovering, understanding, thinking, or planning. In general, a mental verb refers to a cognitive state.

Mental Verb Examples

The mental verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  1. I know the answer.
  2. She recognized me from across the room.
  3. Do you believe everything people tell you?


States of Being Verbs – Definition and Examples.

They are also known as linking verbs: State of Being Verbs describe conditions or situations that exist. State of being verbs are inactive since no action is being performed. These verbs are usually complemented by adjectives.

States of Being Verb Examples.

The state of being verbs in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  1. I am a student.
  2. We are circus performers.
  3. Please be quiet.
  4. She is a doctor.

Types of Verbs

How many types of verbs are there? In addition to the main categories of physical verbs, mental verbs, and state of being verbs, there are several other types of verbs. In fact, there are more than ten different types of verbs that are grouped by function.

Action Verbs

Action verbs express specific actions, and are used any time you want to show action or discuss someone doing something. Example: dance, sleep etc.E.gI am dancing.


Transitive Verbs

These verbs always have direct objects.It means someone or something receives the action of the verb. Examples: She gave me my book.

Bolu killed a snake.

Intransitive Verbs

These are verbs that do not have direct object. Examples: She slept soundly.

Jesus wept.

The baby cried.

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs, and are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a question or negative. Examples: I will give you my note.

I am going to the market.

I shall see you tomorrow.

Stative Verbs

Stative verbs are verbs that cannot be used in the progressive continuous form.  They  can be recognized because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements. Examples: hear, smell, feel, understand, see etc.

Examples:  (i) I am hearing you (wrong)

I can hear you (right)

(ii) Are you understanding me? (wrong)

Do you understand me? (right)


Modal Verbs

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used to express abilities, possibilities, permissions, and obligations.Examples : would, need, ought, will, shall etc. I will visit you later


Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are not single words; instead, they are combinations of verbs and prepositions and adverbs to take on a different meaning to that of the original verb. Examples: put off, sit up etc. You need to sit up academically.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs are those that do not take on the regular spelling patterns of past simple and past participle verbs as they do not end in ‘ed’ in their past simple and past participle forms.  Example: sleep, slept, slept. I slept soundly last night


TOPIC: Composition – Descriptive Essay.

How to Write a Descriptive Essay

More than many other types of essays, descriptive essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this effect not through facts and 

statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions.

What do you want to describe?

As you get started on your descriptive essay, it’s important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of the following:

a person

a place

a memory

an experience

an object

Ultimately, whatever you can perceive



My Favorite Horse Show

As the first rays of the sun peak over the horizon, penetrating the dark, soft light illuminates the mist rising up from the ground, forming an eerie, almost surreal landscape. The ground sparkles, wet with dew, and while walking from the truck to the barn, my riding boots soak it in. The crickets still chirp, only slower now. They know that daytime fast approaches. Sounds, the soft rustling of hooves, a snort, and from far down the aisle a sharp whinny that begs for breakfast, inform me that the crickets are not the only ones preparing for the day.


Sliding the barn doors open, I step into a warm, comforting environment. Musty straw mingles with the sharp aroma of pine shavings, complementing each other. A warm glow from sporadically placed incandescent lightbulbs richens the leather tack, all cleaned and hanging ready for the day’s use. From it wafts the smell of a new pair of shoes. The fruity essence of “Show Sheen”, applied after yesterday’s baths, still lingers in the air. Even the harsh stinging scent of urine and manure is welcome at this early morning hour. Breaking open a bale of hay, I sense the sweetness of the dried timothy as it engulfs my olfactory system, making me wish my queasy stomach had not made me skip breakfast. I am nervous, as are many others. I know that the day ahead will bring excitement, dread, triumph, and defeat. The unpredictable nature of horse shows causes frenzied questions, like salmon spawning, to run constantly though my mind. Will the judge like my own particular style? What if the red flowers bordering the first jump spook my horse? What if a piece of paper on the ground blows into the ring? Will this horse show be a success? The outcome depends not just on me; but a…




Vocabulary Development: Air Transport








Hot air balloons



Hang gliding




Domestic flights

Economy class


International flights




The topic is presented step by step


Step 1:

The class teacher revises the previous topics


Step 2.

He introduces the new topic


Step 3:

The class teacher allows the pupils to give their own examples and he corrects them when the needs arise



Conclusion :


The class teacher wraps up or conclude the lesson by giving out short note to summarize the topic that he or she has just taught.

The class teacher also goes round to make sure that the notes are well copied or well written by the pupils.

He or she does the necessary corrections when and where  the needs arise.


EVALUATION: Use your dictionary to discover the meaning of the following



  1. Describe your favourite sport.
  1. Write ten sentences identifying the verbs therein.



  • Verbs Exercise

Fill in the blanks with the past or past participle form of the verb given in the brackets.

  1. The country is —————– by factions. (tear)
  2. Once Sydney Smith was asked his name by a servant and found to his dismay that he had —————— his own name. (forget)
  3. You couldn’t have —————- a better day for a drive. (choose)
  4. The old beggar was —————— by a mad dog. (bite)
  5. He —————– the book on the table. (lay)
  6. Walking through the jungle he —————- on a snake. (tread)
  7. He —————— a hasty retreat on the arrival of a policeman. (beat)
  8. You must reap what you have —————– (sow)
  9. His voice —————- as he spoke. (shake)
  10. His path was not —————– with flowers but he persevered. (strew)
  11. The explorers were ————— to death. (freeze)
  12. His voice —————— to a whisper. (sink)


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